Coaching

Knowledge Center

   

The act of guiding an individual to new learning in defined time frames. Explanation of Coaching.

Contributed by: Guy Bloom

Contents

  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Best Practices
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Resources
  6. Print

CoachingWhat is Coaching? Description

Coaching can be described as a method and technique which can be used for guiding an individual to new learning in defined time frames. 


There are many definitions for coaching. With so many varying and contradictory definitions, it has been suggested that entering the debate of defining coaching is at this present time an exercise in abstraction (Jackson, 2005). Even prolific academic writers (Clutterbuck and Megginson, 2005) change their viewpoint, indicating that the field is still developing and fluid. As far back as 1994, Garvey (1994) refers to 'one-to-one helping' and thus proposes the concept of redefining the term, with the almost Esperanto-like hope that 'one-to-one helping' might be the rebirth of a muddied term which though effective in descriptor terms is not 'sticky' in branding terms.


Some writers have suggested that mentoring is the model for coaching and that mentoring, as a working title is too formal. They utilize the word coach as it is a more readily palatable (Hudson, 1999). More recently, in a heroic attempt to create some form of cohesion within this confused vista, we see that prominent writers in the field are not happy to accept either activity as a subset of the other. They state categorically that the distinctions between these two terms causes confusion and that the community should start to move to an agreed Coach-Mentor term (Parsloe & Wray, 2005).


Coaching definitions can be as simple and inclusive as, ‘the process of empowering others’ (Whitmore, 1997). Or more definitive: ‘a process that enables learning and development to occur and thus performance to improve'. To be a successful Coach requires a knowledge and understanding of process as well as the variety of styles, skills and techniques that are appropriate to the context in which the coaching takes place’ (Parsloe, 1999). Perspective also plays a huge part in the interpretation of an individual contributors definition. Mentors view coaching as predominantly skills-related, with specific capabilities linked to outcome (Cranwell et al, 2004). The coach shifts the focus to the results of the job (Megginson and Clutterbuck, 1995) and a primary focus on performance within the current job and emphasizes the development of skills (Clutterbuck, 2004).


Definitions by coaches have developed over the years. From the somewhat quaint, potentially dangerous and insular belief that the ‘most important aspect of coaching is being accepted, respected and taken care of, rather than the exchange of information between the coach and the coachee’ (Olalla, 1998). To the business definition that pronounces that ‘coaching is an enabling process to increase performance, development and fulfillment’ (Alexander & Renshaw, 2005). Interestingly, Megginson (1988) as far back as 1988 proffers the view that coaching is more effective in a person’s development if actioned at specific stages. Thus in the context of the business world coaching is more role, job and project specific (Williams, 2000). If we follow this line of thought that specific interventions at appropriate times in a persons development is the most effective methodology, then a review of the broad range of coaching interventions is required. And we will see that what is new, is that coaching has amalgamated psychology, sports psychology and education (Zeus & Skiffington, 2000), and is now busy building ‘marketability and credibility’.
 

Origin of Coaching. History

The term ‘coach’ is first seen in the 1500’s referring to a method of carriage, actually a horse drawn vehicle, originating in the small Hungarian town of Kócs (pronounced "koach"). In the mid 1850’s the word coach was utilized in English universities referring to a person who aided students in exam preparation (Zeus and Skiffington, 2005) and appears to have links with "cramming" apparently recalling the multitasking skills associated with controlling the team of a horse-drawn stagecoach (Wikipedia, 2005). Coaching sees it's roots in Humanistic Psychology (Zeus & Skiffington, 2000), focusing on a persons dignity and intrinsic value.


Coaching in the Business World

As the Humanist movement started to emerge we begin to see a parallel emergence of coaching within the business world, which can be seen within peer reviewed journals. Gorby (1937) describes older employees coaching new employees to reduce waste, so as to achieve a performance bonus. Bigelow (1938) recounts Sales Managers coaching sales people. Mold (1951) reported a 'manager as coach' program. Hayden (1955) argued that 'follow up' coaching improved appraisals. Mahler (1964) indicated the difficulties of organizations getting their managers to be effective coaches. Gersham (1967) evaluated the effect of supervisors on 'attitude & job performance'. Tobias (1996) reports on a technically 'excellent' 44 yr old manager, who is coached on 'soft skills'. Though reported in ‘peer reviewed journals’ the referrals are predominantly ‘case studies’ and ‘comment’ as opposed to rigorous analytical works such as the more recent study by the Manchester Consulting Group (Zeus & Skiffington, 2005). This group reports a 5.7 times ROI in regard to a coaching program launched between 1996-2000. Also the research focus was geared towards a manufacturing biased as this was the financial powerbase at the time and the concepts of ‘empowered workforces’ and ‘human capital’ other than an operational resource was yet to emerge.


Ostensibly the ‘life coaching’ concept demonstrated the first, by modern definitions, coaching like activity, in a program aimed at high school dropouts. This work at the forefront of the war on poverty commenced in the 1950’s from a YMCA-sponsored training program in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, N.Y. Its aim was to search for more powerful counseling/learning methods in helping people learn the psychological and social skills for coping with the predictable developmental problems of life (Adkins, 2006). Towards the end of the 60's research became more rigorous (Grant & Cavanagh, 2004). This focus on more academic methodologies was the catalyst for the credibility required by the more progressive commercial bodies. And as such the birth of executive & business coaching emerged from leadership Programs in the 1980's (Zeus & Skiffington, 2005).


The real breakthrough of Coaching came with the mix of sports and the business world, virtually re-inventing itself. Tim Gallwey (1974) with his Inner Game of Tennis, was a primary catalyst for coaching in a business context with the quick succession of other notable sports-coaches, such as: John Whitmore (champion racing driver), David Hemery (Olympic Hurdles Medalist), and David Witaker (Olympic Hockey Coach).


Coaching in it's modern guise was born out of the Constructionist Learning Theory (Williams & Irving, 2001), with a core belief that there is no single, true interpreter or interpretation of reality (Zeus & Skiffington 2005). One can see the birth of coaching from principles that state: we ‘all construct our own understanding of the world we live in, through reflection on our experiences’. And interestingly with the 1990's seeing what some believe to be an upsurge in ‘quasi-philosophical’ groups, finding particular favor with those involved in management and communications development (Parsloe & Wray, 2005), it is possible to see how phenomenon's such as NLP (Grinder & Bandler, 1989) have ‘cherry picked’ from such areas such as Constructionist theory, Bateson’s (2000) Cybernetics, Chomsky’s (1972) Language Theory and Landamatics (Landa, 1974). It is this ‘cherry pick’ approach and the demands of a commercial corporate world that has generated the call for a ‘scientist-practitioner model of coaching’, where a more academic and rigorous methodology will act as a benchmark and validation of the field. For many coaching is a long way from being a profession, despite the existence of those that coach professionally (Grant, 2003b). The current concerns of definition and validity can be explained by a profession that has ‘converged’ rather than ‘emerged’ onto its current position.


Usage of Coaching. Applications

  • Business Coach.
  • Executive Coach.
  • Life Coach.
  • Performance Coach.
  • Sports Coach.
  • Workplace Coach.

Steps in Coaching. Process

Not universally agreed.


Strengths of Coaching. Benefits

  • The predominant benefit of coaching to the individual and business is the facilitation of self-directed learning. Though learning is enabled via a coach, the true underlying benefit of coaching is in the ability of the individual to 'move on' from the experience as a more able contributor.
  • In terms of retaining and developing talent studies indicate considerable advantages to companies that actively encourage coaching during transition/change phases.
  • ROI for coaching is considerably higher than standard classroom training, especially in the executive community, where studies show they disconnect up to 30 quicker than middle tier staff.

Limitations of Coaching. Disadvantages

  • Coaching is not therapy. If it is then the coachee can become dependent.
  • Can be seen as a prestige position in a business and thus can create a cliché of coaches and political influencers.
  • Try telling your boss he's a crap coach!

Assumptions of Coaching. Conditions

  • Coaching really pulls on the idea of Malcolm Knowles and 'Adult Learning', which in essence says that the individual has responsibility for their own learning and all engagements, should be 'guided, rather than led'.
  • This is an incredibly complicated topic, for such a simple thing. The reason being that coaching itself is not by definition a model, models such as GROW, are the tools of coaching.
  • Currently there are no central models that offer a universally accepted definition.

Book: Zeus & Skiffington - The Coaching at Work Toolkit -

Book: Mary Beth O'Neill - Executive Coaching with Backbone and Heart -

Book: Bruce Peltier - The Psychology of Executive Coaching -


Coaching Forum
  The Wheel of Life: Balance your Life
Life is not uni-dimensional; balance in life
     
 
  The Enneagram of 9 Personalities. Types and Centers.
The Enneagram is a very old symbol which has been ...
     
 
  Assumptions of Coaching: You Can Change and Develop Yourself
Since the 1960s, human studies, psychotherapy and ...
     
 
  Evaluate the Benefits of Coaching in Your Organisation
Evaluation of coaching outcomes within an organisa...
     
 
  The Need for Relational Coaching
The term 'Relational Coaching' might seem to be sy...
     
 
  Effective Coaching
An effective coach is a skilled and knowledgeable ...
     
 
  Raising Productivity by Coaching
Be patient + be patient + be patient = success in ...
     
 
  Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of Coaching
Mentoring and coaching both have qualitative and q...
     
 
  Leader Must make Decisions
Ramos said: 'No authority shall rule over reason, ...
     
 
  Coaching Reduces Wastage
Besides increasing productivity, coaching can also...
     
 
  Problems with Definition of Coaching
Overly broad definitions of coaching (and mentorin...
     
 
  Business Coach must be Holistic
I agree with the most comments. And as business co...
     
 
  Why Leaders Need Coaching
Leaders must be very conscious of their actions an...
     
 
  Use of the Body in Coaching
What do you think about those coaching approaches ...
     
 

Coaching Special Interest Group


Special Interest Group

Coaching Education & Events


Find Trainings, Seminars and Events


Best Practices - Coaching Premium
  Coach People's Strengths or Weaknesses?
Coaching people's strengths I find i...
     
 
  Rational Emotional and Behavioral Therapy: REBT
The theory of REBT has been developed by Albert El...
     
 
  The Coach is a Facilitator for Self-Findings
Coaching is not about teaching people, but it is a...
     
 
  Has Coaching Become Too Technical?
I have been researching coaching for a number of y...
     
 
  Qualities of a Good Coach. Checklist
The importance of coaching cannot be underestimate...
     
 
  Coaching By Managers and Leaders
I've been a long time manager in multinational com...
     
 
  Does Business Coaching Really Work?
Hypothesis: coaching helps the coachee (and his te...
     
 
  Mentoring versus Coaching
Mentoring has high interest for me. Based on my ob...
     
 

Expert Tips - Coaching Premium
 

The GROW Coaching Framework

There is a coaching model from partnership coachin...
Usage (application): Coaching Model to Guide Coach-Coachee Interactions
 
 
 

Myths on REACHING the top

I'd like to contribute a summary of an  
 
 

Write a Personal Mission Statement

Covey wrote this pearl of wisdom in his book Usage (application): Establish focus on who you want to be in your life...
 
 
 

What is Your Leadership Point of View?

In my experience very few leaders are able to defi...
Usage (application): Reflection on your Leadership Style
 
 
 

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

An interesting way to look at coachees for motiva...
Usage (application): Motivating your Coachee
 
 
 

GENIUS Coaching Model

I developed the GENIUS coaching model as a guide t...
Usage (application): Coaching Talented People
 
 
 

Personal Benefits of Coaching

Here is a list of some typical advantages of using...
Usage (application): Explaining the Advantages of Coaching at Coacheel Level
 
 
 

History of Coaching

- In the context of management, the term coaching ...
Usage (application): Organizational Development, Background of Coaching
 
 
 

The GROWTH Framework for Coaching

The GROWTH model adds two more dimensions to this ...
Usage (application): Extended Coaching Model to Guide Coach-Coachee Interactions
 
 
 

Organizational Benefits of Coaching

Here are some typical benefits of using a coach to...
Usage (application): Explaining the Advantages of Coaching at Organizational Level
 
 
 

Identify and Develop Leadership Abilities

Four Rules of Leadership...  
 
 

Five Leadership Development Ideas

Although years of research and analysis by biograp...
Usage (application): Leadership Development, Management Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 
 
 

What is the Opposite of Situational Leadership?

Situational Leadership can be seen as an adaptive ...
Usage (application): Leadership Development, Management Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 
 
 

Psychoanalysis and Coaching

Psychoanalysis is focused on what does not ...
Usage (application): Similarities and Differences
 
 
 

How to Develop your Own Leadership Philosophy

In an article “When should a leader be directive o...
Usage (application): Leadership/Management Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 
 
 

Ineffective Behavior

There are many different forms or manifestations o...
Usage (application): Analyzing Manager, Employee or Self Behavior
 
 
 

4 Patterns of Behavior

According to Willem Roding there are 4 patterns cu...
Usage (application): Creating Behavioral Awareness
 
 
 

The Relationship between the Power of Leaders and Overconfidence

Fast et al. (2012) researched the relationship bet...
Usage (application): Leadership, Power, Leadership Development, Executive Education
 
 
 

How to Assess Relational Skills of the Coachee?

You can use the  
 
 

How to Develop Better Relational Skills?

Although it is not necessary to be interested in o...
Usage (application): Human Resources, Leadership
 
 
 

Recognizing Distressed Managers in Leadership Pipeline Transition

Moving from one manager level/phase to the followi...
Usage (application): Coaching, Mentoring, Management Development, Leadership Development
 
 
 

Freud's Personality Types

Freud recognized that there are an almost infinite...
Usage (application): Personality Types, Leadership Development, Management Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing ...
Usage (application): Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 
 

Leadership Self-Assessement

Before you seek training in leadership, you should...
Usage (application): Leadership Training, Leadership Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 
 

Resources - Coaching Premium

Introduction to Coaching Employees

Presentation about Coaching, thereby focusing on E...
Usage (application): Organizational Coaching, Employee Assistance
 

How to Become a Master Manager?

This good introduction presentation is about how t...
Usage (application): Introduction to Managing People. Know Thyself
 

The Fatal Coaching Mistake by Managers

Managers and executives often don't realize how mu...
Usage (application): Coaching, Mentoring, Management, Leadership
 

Coaching vs Counselling

Comparison of counselling and coaching on 6 charac...
Usage (application): A Comparison
 

Building the Helping Relationship

Superb article by MIT Professor and OD consultant ...
Usage (application): 10 Principles for Facilitative Consultancy
 

Assess your Personality Type to Plan your Career

This presentation elaborates on how to define your...
Usage (application): Career Management, Career Planning, Personality Types
 

NLP: The 6 Neurological Levels

Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) is used increas...
Usage (application): 6 layers to view at the reality of a person or issue
 

Hearing versus Listening

A comprehensive presentation about listening and h...
Usage (application): Communicating Effectively, Active Listening, Coaching, Mentoring
 

Daniel Goleman on Competence Development

Daniel Goleman gives 5 steps on how to develop a p...
Usage (application): Competence Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 

Coaching vs Mentoring

Comparison of mentoring and coaching on 7 characte...
Usage (application): A Comparison
 

Introduction and Summary of (Executive) Coaching

Chris Ruisi explains:
1. What is coaching? Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Coaching
 

Steven Covey on his 8 Habits of Effective People / Managers / Leaders

In this video Steven Covey explains his 7 habits p...
Usage (application): Understanding the 8 Habits of Covey. Leadership Development, Management Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 

The Performance Effects of Coaching

Paper by Ritu Agarwal, Corey M. Angst and Massimo ...
Usage (application): Coaching, Performance
 

How to Manage Challenging Situations and Challenging People?

This presentation is about the management of Confl...
Usage (application): People Management, Conflict Management, Persuasion, Challenging Situations
 

Manager? Why you need Coaching and Mentoring Skills

Effective managers understand the difference betwe...
Usage (application): Management Skills, Coaching Skills, Mentoring Skills, Management Development, Leadership Development
 

Practical Communication Tips for Managers

As manager you need to combine professional expert...
Usage (application): Management Skills, Leadership Skills, Management Development, Leadership Development, Situational Leadership
 

Communication Essentials: Non-verbal, Verbal and Listening Skills

Presentation about communication skills, including...
Usage (application): Communication Skills, Personal Skills, Confidence, Power, Influence, Sincerity, Trust
 

Mindfulness and Wellbeing at Work

This presentation elaborates on the concept of min...
Usage (application): Wellbeing, Well-being, Mindfulness, Motivation, Employee Commitment Time Management, Coaching
 

The Role of Supervisor | Skills of Supervisors

This presentation elaborates on the skills that su...
Usage (application): Skills of a Supervisor, Supervisor Role, Supervisor Behavior
 

All the World is a Stage (Shakespeare)

Explanation of the main ideas of sociologist Ervin...
Usage (application): Impression Management, Communication
 

Johan Cruijff on Coaching

In this video legendary Dutch football player and ...
Usage (application): Coaching, Mentoring, Goal Setting, Teamwork
 

How you can Change and Improve Yourself

Coach Tony Robbins explains that you can only achi...
Usage (application): Self Development, Coaching, Mentoring, Management Development, Leadership Development
 

Peer and Co-worker Relationships

This presentation is about the relationship betwee...
Usage (application): Relationship Management, Emotional Intelligence, Coaching, Emotional Work, Relationship at Work, Employee Relationships
 

Guide Toward Coaching your Employees

Presentation that provides information about the w...
Usage (application): Coaching Employees, Performance Reviews, Giving Effective Feedback
 

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

This video is a nice start for any management cour...
Usage (application): Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development
 
 

News about Coaching Executives


     
 

News about Coaching Managers


     
 

Videos about Coaching Executives


     
 

Videos about Coaching Managers


     
 

Presentations about Coaching Executives


     
 

Presentations about Coaching Managers


     
 

Books about Coaching Executives


     
 

Books about Coaching Managers


     
 

More about Coaching Executives


     
 

More about Coaching Managers


     

Compare with Coaching: Mentoring  |  Facilitation Styles  |  Leadership Pipeline  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power  |  Cultural Dimensions  |  Cultural Intelligence  |  Emotional Intelligence  |  Managerial Grid  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work  |  Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  ERG Theory  |  Spiral Dynamics  |  Changing Organizational Cultures  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Whole Brain Model  |  Seven Habits  |  Seven Surprises  |  Johari Window  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Leadership Styles  |  Level 5 Leadership


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Communication & Skills  |  Human Resources  |  Leadership


More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

You here


About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us | Privacy | Terms of Service
Copyright 2017 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Last updated: 19-11-2017. All names tm by their owners.