is the Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change? Description
Organizational change is a kind of chaos. Like the
7-S Framework by Pascale and Athos, the Burke-Litwin
Model integrates a range of factors that provide some guidance to understand
how organizations work amidst this
chaos. Burke and Litwin go
one step further by arguing that there are certain consistent causal linkages
among these classes of events. See the figure.
Origin of the Burke-Litwin Model. History
During the 1960s George Litwin and others were thinking on organizational
climate. In 1992, Burke and Litwin publish an article in the Journal of Management
(Vol. 18, No. 3) in which they add a few factors to the
7-S Framework and combine this with a high-level
change process theory, in which certain elements cause changes of other elements.
Usage of the Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change. Applications
- Analyzing Organizational Change
- Understanding Organizational Change
- Managing Organizational Change
- Predicting Organizational Change
Steps in the Model by Burke and Litwin. Process
Burke and Litwin distinguish between transformational factors (yellow
boxes) and transactional factors (green boxes).
- Transformational change happens in response to the
external environment, which directly
affects the mission,
culture of the organization.
- In turn, the transactional factors are affected:
and work climate.
- These transformational and transactional factors together affect
in turn affects performance.
- There is a feedback loop: the organizational performance can directly
effect the external environment.
Strengths of the Burke-Litwin Model. Benefits
- Overview: the framework integrates many major change factors.
- External environment is the main factor (although not necessarily the
- The hierarchy and causality between the elements.
- The model distinguishes between the set of variables that influence
and are influenced by organizational climate (everyday, transactional level)
and those influenced by organizational culture (fundamental, transformational
Limitations of the Model by Burke and Litwin. Disadvantages
- The model is a bit complex (although still an oversimplification of
- Some organizational changes may be initiated by leadership or by internal
factors rather than by the external environment.
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Compare with the Causal Model of Organizational Performance and
Change: 7-S Framework |
Ashridge Mission Model
| Catalytic Mechanisms
| Chaos Theory
| Change Phases |
Six Change Approaches
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