Business Process Reengineering
(BPR)

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Resumo

Business Process ReengineeringO método do Business Process Reengineering (BPR) é descrito pelo Hammer e pelo Champy como “a reconsideração fundamental e o redesign radical de processos organizational, a fim conseguir a melhoria drástica do performance atual no custo, os serviços e a velocidade”.


Melhor que organizando uma empresa em specialties funcionais (como a produção, a contabilidade, o marketing, etc.) e para olhar as tarefas que cada função executa, o Hammer e Champy recomendam que nós devemos olhar processos completos. Da aquisição dos materiais, para a produção, para o marketing e a distribuição. Um deve reconstruir a empresa em uma série dos processos.
 

A criação do valor para o cliente é o fator principal para o BPR e a tecnologia de informação joga frequentemente um papel permitir importante. Compare: Relationship Marketing

 

Hammer de Michael e James Champy

Os proponents principais do re-engineering eram Hammer de Michael e James Champy. Em uma série dos livros including Reengineering the Corporation, Reengineering Management, e a agenda, argumentam que distante demasiada hora está desperdiçada, passando em tarefas de um departamento a outro. Reivindicam que é mais eficiente distante apontar uma equipe que executa todas as tarefas no processo.


Um abordagem de cinco etapas ao Business Process Reengineering

Davenport (1992) prescreve um abordagem da cinco-etapa ao modelo do Business Process Reengineering:

  1. Desenvolva a visão do negócio e os objetivos process: O método do BPR é dirigido por uma visão do negócio que implique objetivos de negócio específicos tais como a redução de custo, redução do tempo, melhoria de qualidade da saída.
  2. Identifique os processos do negócio a redesigned: a maioria de empresa usam o abordagem “high-impact” que focaliza nos processos os mais importantes ou aqueles que opõem mais à visão do negócio. Pouco número das empresa usa “o abordagem exhaustive” esse tentativas de identificar todos os processos dentro de uma organização e de dar-lhes prioridade então em ordem do urgency do redesign.
  3. Compreenda e meça os processos existentes: para evitar repetir de erros velhos e para fornecer uma linha de base para as melhorias futuras. Compare: Scientific Management
  4. Identifique-o ergue com alavanca: a consciência dELA potencialidades enlata e deve influenciar o BPR.
  5. Projete e construa um protótipo do processo novo: o projeto real não deve ser visto como o fim do processo do BPR. Rather, deve ser visto como um protótipo, com iterações sucessivas. O metaphor do protótipo alinha o abordagem do Business Process Reengineering com a entrega rápida dos resultados, e a participação e a satisfação dos clientes.

Como uma 6a etapa adicional do método do BPR, às vezes você encontra: para adaptar a estrutura organizational, e o modelo do governance, para o processo preliminar recentemente projetado.


Circunstâncias genéricos que influenciam se o BPR é aconselhável

Embora seja difícil dê o conselho genérico sobre isto, alguns fatores que podem ser considerados são:

  • A competição outperform claramente a companhia? Compare: Gerência da rotação
  • Há muitos conflitos na organização?
  • Há extremamente uma alta freqüência das reuniões?
  • Uso excessivo de uma comunicação non-estruturada? (memorandos, email, etc.)
  • É possível considerar um abordagem mais contínuo de melhorias graduais, incrementais? (veja: Kaizen).

Críticos do abordagem do BPR

O Reengineering ganhou uma reputação má porque tais projetos resultaram frequentemente em dispensas maciças. Apesar da exagerada que cercou a introdução do Business Process Reengineering, parcialmente o venceu ao fato que os autores de Reengineering the Corporation compraram reportedly números enormes das cópias para alcançar o alto do bestseller alista, o método não viveu inteiramente até suas expectativas. As razões principais parecem ser aquela:

  • O BPR supõe que o fator que limita o performance da organização é o ineffectiveness de seus processos. Isto pode ou não pode sempre ser verdadeiro. Também o BPR não oferece nenhum meio validar esta suposição.
  • O BPR supõe a necessidade começar o processo da melhoria do performance com “um slate limpo”, isto é negligencía totalmente o quo do status.
  • O BPR não fornece uma maneira eficaz focalizar os esforços da melhoria nos confinamentes da organização. (Como feito por Goldratt no Theory of Constraints).
  • Às vezes, ou talvez completamente frequentemente, uma mudança gradual e incremental (tal como Kaizen) pode ser um abordagem melhor.
  • O BPR é culturally inclinado para a maneira dos E.U. de pensar. (veja: Cultural Dimensions)

BPR comparado a Kaizen

Quando Kaizen é comparado com o método do BPR é espaço livre que o Kaizen philosophy é mais humano-orientado, mais fácil de executar, mas reque a disciplina a longo prazo e fornece somente um ritmo pequeno da mudança. O abordagem do Business Process Reengineering na uma mão é mais duro, tecnologia-orientado, ele permite a mudança radical mas requer habilidades de gerência consideráveis da mudança.


Livro: Hammer and Champy - Reengineering the Corporation

Livro: Davenport - Process Innovation


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Compare o BPR com:  Outsourcing  |  Change Phases  |  Catastrophe Theory  |  Organic Organization  |  Core Group Theory  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance  |  Forget Borrow Learn  |  Planned Behavior  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Kaizen  |  Engenharia de valor  |  Value Stream Mapping  |  Change Management  |  Six Change Approaches  |  Managing for Value  |  Dimensions of Change  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Blue Ocean Strategy  |  Bottom of the Pyramid


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