OODA Loop
(John Boyd)

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The OODA Loop (Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act) is an  information strategy concept for information warfare developed by Colonel John Boyd (1927-1997). Although the OODA model was clearly created for military purposes, elements of the same theory can also be applied to business strategy. Boyd developed the theory based on his earlier experience as a fighter pilot and work on energy maneuverability. He initially used it to explain victory in air-to-air combat, but in the last years of his career he expanded his OODA Loop theory into a grand strategy that would defeat an enemy strategically by - psychological - paralysis.


Boyd emphasized that strategy should always revolve around changing the enemy's behavior, not annihilating his forces. The parallel between Boyd's ideas and the masterpiece of Sun Tzu, "The Art of War", are obvious. Both Boyd and Sun Tzu advocate the ideas of harmony, deception, swiftness and fluidity of action, surprise, shock, and attacking the enemy's strategy.


Colonel Boyd viewed the enemy (and ourselves) as a system that is acting through a decision making process. This decision making process is based on observations of the world around it. The enemy will observe unfolding circumstances and gather outside information in order to orient the system to perceived threats. Boyd states that the orientation phase of the loop is the most important step, because if the enemy perceives the wrong threats, or misunderstands what is happening in the environment around him, then he will orient his thinking (and forces) in wrong directions and ultimately make incorrect decisions. Boyd said that this cycle of decision-making could operate at different speeds for the enemy and your own organization. The goal should be to complete your OODA Loop process at a faster tempo than the enemy's, and to take action to lengthen the enemy's loop. One tries to conduct many more loops "inside" the enemy's loop, causing the enemy to be unable to react to anything that is happening to him.


OODA Loop Boyd

Chart adapted from Chester W. Richards, "A Swift, Elusive Sword: What if Sun Tzu and John Boyd did a National Defense review", Center for Defense Information, February 2003, 22.


Colonel Boyd stated that the enemy's loop can be lengthened through a variety of means. Boyd's aim is to generate "non-cooperate" centers of gravity for the enemy through ambiguity, deception, novel circumstances, fast transient maneuvers, and the use of Sun-Tzu's idea of Cheng and Ch'i. By isolating the enemy's centers of gravity and developing mistrust and cohesion within the system (making them "non-cooperative"), friction will be greatly increased, paralysis in the system will set in, and the enemy will ultimately collapse. By attacking the thought process of the enemy / competitor, his morale and decision process can be shattered.


Book: Sun Tzu, Gary Gagliardi - The Art of War -

Book: Carl Von Clausewitz - On War -


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Forum about OODA Loop  

Discussions about OODA Loop.


OODA Loop versus PDSA Cycle
Boyd's OODA Loop and Deming's PDSA Cycle appear to be similar at first sight. And indeed there are several similarities (...)
 
 
 
 
Crucial Dialogue Model Refines OODA Loop
The OODA loop is not new… It is as old as mankind (otherwise we wouldn’t be here). The foundation of the “OODA loop” an (...)
 
 
 
 
🔥 NEW Scope of OODA Loops
John Boyd's work focused on getting inside of your opponents decision cycle time. There was no specification as to wheth (...)
 
 
 
 

Best Practices about OODA Loop

Here you find the most valuable discussions from the past.


🥇 The Lesson of John Boyd for Decision Makers
You can use the "OODA Loop" of fighter pilot John Boyd for various kinds of decision-making in different situations and (...)
 
 
 
 
🥈 OODA Loop & John Boyd
Orientation also involves probing for new information and looking for parallels in other areas of knowledge. It is extre (...)
 
 
 
 
🥉 OODA & Adaptive Enterprise
I was surprised not to see anything about Stephan Haeckel's Adaptive Enterprise concept, advanced in late 1990s. He was (...)
 
 
 
 
Books on Boyd and his OODA Concept
'The Mind of War' and 'The John Boyd Roundtable' are some other books talking about Boyd theories and the OODA Loop conc (...)
 
 
 
 
OODA Loop in Education / Schools
Can anyone illustrate the use of OODA Loop in any school situation? (...)
 
 
 
 

Expert Tips about OODA Loop

Here you will find advices by experts.


Weaknesses of OODA-Loop. Disadvantages

Limitations OODA Loop, Disadvantages OODA Loop, OODA Decision-making (...)
   
 
 
 

An Improved Version of the OODA-loop with Feedback and -forward Loops

OODA-loop, Complex Decision Support, Defense, Best Practices (...)
   
 
 
 

Boyd's 3 Levels of Warfare

Warfare, Competition (...)
   
 
 
 

Strategy and Strategic Aim of Boyd's OODA

OODA Strategy, OODA Strategic Aim, OODA Purpose (...)
   
 
 
 

Advantages of a Better OODA Loop Than your Competitors

OODA Advantages, OODA Competitive Advantages (...)
   
 
 
 

Grand Tactics Behind OODA Enemy View

Adversary View of OODA, OODA Adversaries (...)
   
 
 
 

Cycle the OODA Loop Quickly

OODA Loop, OODA Cycle, OODA Feedback (...)
   
 
 
 

Information Sources about OODA Loop

Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc.


Full 200-slide Powerpoint Presentation by Boyd

Strategy, Conflict, OODA Loop (...)
 
 
 
 

A Cognitive Version of the OODA Loop

Complex (Military) Dynamic Decision Support (...)
 
 
 
 

OODA Loop Applied to Marketing Management

Decision-making, Information (...)
 
 
 
 

The Dynamic OODA Loop

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OODA Loop Diagram

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Orientation Step in the OODA-loop

Orientation Phase, OODA-Loop (...)
 
 
 
 

Compare with the OODA Loop of John Boyd:  Deming Cycle  |  Organic Organization  |  Business Intelligence  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Scenario Planning  |  PEST Analysis  |  SWOT Analysis  |  System Dynamics  |  Simulation


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