Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的营销组合]
(7Ps)

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Booms和Bitner的 7Ps - Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的7P营销组合]解析。

目录

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Booms和Bitner的扩展的7P营销组合理论,作为一项行之有效的市场战略工具,是从传统的4P营销组合衍生而来,即将原来的可控变量从4P扩展成为7P


7P营销组合的运用。

传统Marketing Mix[营销组合]模型以有形产品为导向的, 7Ps模型更加适用于服务业知识密集型产业(对于后者的适用性目前仍有争议)。


扩展的3P

Booms和Bitner将下面3个P增加到了原有的4P营销组合中。

  1. 人员(People: 所有的人都直接或间接地被卷入某种服务的消费过程中,这是7P营销组合很重要的一个观点。 知识工作者、白领雇员、管理人员以及部分消费者将额外的价值增加到了既有的社会总产品或服务的供给中,这部分价值往往非常显著。
  2. 过程(Process: 服务通过一定的程序、机制以及活动得以实现的过程(亦即消费者管理流程),是市场营销战略的一个关键要素。
  3. 物证(Physical Evidence包括服务供给得以顺利传送的服务环境, 有形商品承载和表达服务的能力,当前消费者的无形消费体验,以及向潜在顾客传递消费满足感的能力。

相对于前两个P(人员、过程),最后一个P(物证)是一个比较抽象的要素。


Booms和Bitner同时对传统的4P提出修改意见,他们认为,对于服务导向型企业而言,地点(Place)还应包括服务的可通达性,而销售促进(Promotion)则应该把一线服务人员的投入也包括进去。


参考书: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy [中译本《大行销时代》,台湾天下杂志出版社,2004] -

参考书: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management [中译本《策略行销管理》,台湾华泰书局,1998] -


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比较: Marketing Mix[营销组合] (4Ps)  |  Relationship Marketing[关系营销]  |  Ansoff  |  Porter  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  3C's  |  4S Web Marketing Mix[4S网络营销组合]


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