Extended Marketing Mix
(7-Ps)

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Summary, forum, best practices, expert tips and information sources.

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Summary

The 7-Ps or Extended Marketing Mix of Booms and Bitner is a Marketing Strategy tool that expands the number of controllable variables from the four in the original Marketing Mix Model to seven.


Usage of the Extended Marketing Mix

The traditional Marketing Mix model was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. The 7-Ps model is more useful for services industries and arguably also for knowledge-intensive environments.


3 extra P's

Booms and Bitner's have added the following 3 additional Ps to the original Marketing Mix:

  1. People: All people that are directly or indirectly involved in the consumption of a service are an important part of the Extended Marketing Mix. Knowledge workers, employees, management and consumers often add significant value to the total product or service offering.
  2. Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element of the marketing strategy.
  3. Physical Evidence: The ability and environment in which the service is delivered. Both tangible goods that help to communicate and perform the service, and the intangible experience of existing customers and the ability of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to potential customers.

The first two more Ps are explicit (People, Process) and the third one (Physical Evidence) is an implicit factor.


Booms and Bitner also suggest that Place in a service-oriented company includes the accessibility of the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented company includes the input of front-line service personnel.


Book: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy

Book: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management


Special Interest Group

Services Marketing Special Interest Group.



Special Interest Group (1445 members)

Forum

Forum about Services Marketing.


 

Use only P's that can be Controlled / Influenced!
Please, when deciding on any P in the marketing mix, it is key to remind marketers to focus on the ability to control the P.
Perception is not controllable, but may be influenced by package, prod...
11
 
Extra Marketing Mix P - Publicity
Publicity and public relations will also be an extra P in the present day scenario as this will get more professionalised. Corporate image building etc has to be enhanced to attract customers....
11
 
2 comments
7 P's or Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Maybe we should just be focusing on the things that give our organisations sustainable competitive advantage. This could be anything the organisation has, has access to or that is happening within the...
11
 
Extra Marketing Mix P - Performance
I think that performance is the only criteria for judgement pertaining to success or failure. The product performance can be encapsulated on the content of how much value satisfaction is being derived...
11
 
Extra Marketing Mix P: Patience
I think in service industry patience is utmost important, because whatever organisation is offering they are intangible things and if it failes to perform (which is often the case), buyer and seller b...
9
 
Alternate 7 Ps instead of Those of the Extended Marketing Mix
Proper Prior Planning and Preparation Prevents Poor Performance......
9
 
1 comments
Extra Marketing Mix P: Planning
An extra P that should be considered is Planning.
Planning is involved in each step of the 4P 's or 7P's......
8
 
1 comments
🔥 NEW 3 Extra Marketing Mix P's for the Changing World
Planet, Privacy and Poverty are another three P's that I suggest need careful strategies. All these topics materially affect the way in which products and services are produced. They reflect the orien...
7
 
1 comments
Extra Marketing Mix P: Positioning
We should add another P: Positioning......
7
 
Extra Marketing Mix P - Politics
This P's has grt power and influences the very basics of marketing..What say?...
6
 
Extra Marketing Mix P: Power
Physical Power acquired by a company from one of its resources can not be overlooked as a strong P....
6
 
1 comments
Marketing Mix - when to choose what??
I think the whole process of marketing revolves around these 7 Ps, but what is more important is to analyze the internal and external environments, your strengths and weaknesses, and then prioritize h...
6
 
Keep Marketing Plan Simple
Use the most suited P's of the marketing mix for the marketing plan. Using all or too many could complicate the plan. Keep the plan as simple as possible, as it's easier to implement for us, and easie...
6
 
1 comments
Extra Marketing Mix P - Principles
There is a basic misunderstanding by some of the commentators. The Ps are internal factors in control of the business and an error in one of them can cause failure of the whole mix. For example get th...
5
 
Extra Marketing Mix P - Product Innovation
To be successful in the market,every company should concentrate on Product Innovation that best suit the customers. Many companies are spending a huge sum in new innovation....
5
 
Extra Marketing Mix P - Perception
A possible 9th P could be 'Perception' of interested groups of people, primarily the Customers....
5
 
1 comments
Service-Dominant Logic of Marketing
Service-Dominant Logic is a new logic in marketing in which a service view substitutes the traditional, historic goods view.
Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic is a mindset for a unified understanding ...
4
 
Addition of PEOPLE to the Marketing Mix is Important
Indeed the extended 3Ps are important, especially PEOPLE. They are perhaps the most unreliable "P". By including it in the marketing mix, people can understand the market in a better way....
3
 
Extra Marketing Mix P: Positive
I suggest to add an 8P to the marketing mix: POSITIVE that stands for: Positive Marketing (Market Sustainability).
I believe Positive Marketing can contribute to business' social responsibility, ...
0
 

Best Practices

The best, top-rated topics about Services Marketing. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


From 7 P's to 7 C's of Marketing
Anyone who has taken a marketing course learned about the 4Ps and later 7Ps of Marketing. They are Place, Price, Promotion, Product. Later People, Physical Evidence and Process were added.
Howeve...
60
 
14 comments

What is Physical Evidence in Extended Marketing Mix?
I've read and re-read the meaning of Physical Evidence but it's still gobbledigook. "The ability and environment in which the service is delivered": Who can give some further explanation and examples...
52
 
14 comments

Which Marketing Mix P is most Important? Prioritising the 7 P's...
Could someone please prioritise the 7 P's for me in order of importance?...
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5 comments

When Should we Use the Extended Marketing Mix (7Ps) instead of the Traditional Marketing Mix (4Ps)?
Basically you could just go away with the 4Ps even when it comes to the services, however just having those 7Ps in mind is a good idea, but its not really something to focus on.
The Physical Evid...
30
 
8 comments

Extra Marketing Mix P - Packaging
Another P should be added - Packaging. The rationale is that it is very important how the product is presented to the customer, and the packaging is often the first contact that a customer has with a ...
28
 
6 comments

P's of marketing mix
Why we are stuck in the web of P's only? Just to continue with the single alphabet will not solve the problem...we have another 25 alphabets ...and marketing can be known by combining all of them...an...
22
 
Is the Customer Always Right?
1. The customer is always right.
2. The customer comes second.
Which position do you agree with? Why?...
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12 comments

Extra Marketing Mix P - Pace
How about Pace? I.e. The speed of introduction of new products.
Won't pace be a factor to be considered to get the First Mover Advantage?
Marketing success is a function of Pace in a big way...
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3 comments

What about Customers??
Sometimes I think marketers can get too hanged up with theories, that we forget the ' Customer Experience'. Though it doesn't start with a "P" per say but essentially they are the core of the Marketin...
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3 comments

Expert Tips

Advanced insights about Services Marketing. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


How to Determine the Right PRICING?

Steps to Strategic Pricing
One of the 4 P's is Pricing. To help managers find the right price for a product/service, Kim and Mauborgne have develop...

The Most Complete Marketing Mix

Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix
The 'Total Marketing Mix' includes 4Ps, 4Cs,4As and 4Os: 4Ps: Product, Price, Promotion and Place 4Cs: Customer needs,...

3 Communication Phases in Providing Services

Services Management
Three main communication phases can be distinguished in which a service provider communicates with his customers. 1: Pr...

What Types of Marketing Organizations Exist?

Best Practices to Consider
Booz Allen identified 6 types of marketing organizations (May 29 2006 of Brandweek): 1. Marketing Masters: authority to...

Don't Forget Internal Marketing

Involving your Employees, Internal Marketing Best Practices
Besides external marketing, dealing with the image, look and view how customers see or define your organization, interna...

Additional 8th P of the Extended Marketing Mix

Marketing
Some practitioners and academics are suggesting a potential 8th P of marketing, although the opinions, which additional ...
Information Sources

Various sources of information regarding Services Marketing. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


A Service-Oriented View on Marketing

Service-Dominant Logic, Perspectives on Marketing
Presentation about a service-dominant logic mindset in marketing, including the following sections: 1. Getting the logi...

Consumer Behavior in the Service Sector

Decision Making, Behavioral Economics
Presentation about consumer behavior in services. The presentation includes the following files: 1. Consumer Problems ...

Product Packaging

Marketing, Sustainable Business, Environmental Sustainability, Packaging
In-depth presentation about packaging and sustainable packaging. The presentation is very extensive and uses head sectio...

Services Marketing

Marketing Services
Comprehensive presentation on service marketing by Aziz Seyid. Includes Intro-features and characteristics, Consumer Be...

Introduction to Services Marketing

Services Marketing, Service Sector Marketing, Hospitality Services
This presentation is about marketing in the services sector, emphasizing the travel and tourism sectors. It includes the...

Introduction and Summary of the 7P's

Initial Understanding of the 7P's, Trainings, Workshops
One by one explanation of each of the 7P's: 1. Product 2. Price 3. Place 4. Promotion 5. People 6. Process 7. Phy...

Mindmap of Extended Marketing Mix

Summary
Mindmap of Extended Marketing Mix....

Research Links

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Compare with the Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps): Marketing Mix (4-Ps)  |  Relationship Marketing  |  Ansoff  |  Porter  |  BCG Matrix  |  Positioning  |  Co-Creation  |  3C's  |  4S Web Marketing Mix


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