Extended Marketing Mix
(7-Ps)

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Explanation of Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps) of Booms and Bitner.


The 7-Ps or Extended Marketing Mix of Booms and Bitner is a Marketing Strategy tool that expands the number of controllable variables from the four in the original Marketing Mix Model to seven.


Usage of the Extended Marketing Mix

The traditional Marketing Mix model was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. The 7-Ps model is more useful for services industries and arguably also for knowledge-intensive environments.


3 extra P's

Booms and Bitner's have added the following 3 additional Ps to the original Marketing Mix:

  1. People: All people that are directly or indirectly involved in the consumption of a service are an important part of the Extended Marketing Mix. Knowledge workers, employees, management and consumers often add significant value to the total product or service offering.
  2. Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element of the marketing strategy.
  3. Physical Evidence: The ability and environment in which the service is delivered. Both tangible goods that help to communicate and perform the service, and the intangible experience of existing customers and the ability of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to potential customers.

The first two more Ps are explicit (People, Process) and the third one (Physical Evidence) is an implicit factor.


Booms and Bitner also suggest that Place in a service-oriented company includes the accessibility of the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented company includes the input of front-line service personnel.


Book: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy -

Book: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management -


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Compare with the Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps): Marketing Mix (4-Ps)  |  Relationship Marketing  |  Ansoff  |  Porter  |  BCG Matrix  |  Positioning  |  Co-Creation  |  3C's  |  4S Web Marketing Mix


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