Seis Sombreros para Pensar
(de Bono)

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Resumen

Seis Sombreros para Pensar - de Bono La técnica de los Seis Sombreros para Pensar de Edward de Bono es un modelo que se puede utilizarse para explorar las diversas perspectivas de una situación o un desafío complejo. Viendo las cosas de varias maneras es a menudo una buena idea en la formalización de una estrategia y en los procesos de toma de decisiones complejas.


La técnica del STH se diseñó para ayudar a los individuos a explorar deliberadamente una variedad de perspectivas sobre un tema, que pueden ser muy diferentes de las perspectivas que asumiría normalmente. Al usar un sombrero de pensamiento particular, la gente desempeña los roles , o asumiéndose “como si” ellos mismos asumieran una perspectiva particular. Por ejemplo, uno podía jugar al abogado de diablo, aunque solamente para generar la discusión. El propósito del abogado del diablo es desafiar deliberadamente una idea: sea crítico, busque qué es lo incorrecto de ella.

Cada uno de los sombreros se nombra con un color que sea mnemotécnicamente descriptivo de la perspectiva que uno adopte al usar el sombrero particular. Por ejemplo el papel de abogado del diablo usa el sombrero de pensamiento negro.


Los seis sombreros

  • Blanco (Observador) papel blanco; Neutral; concéntrese en la información disponible, HECHOS objetivos, qué es necesario, cómo puede ser obtenido

  • (Uno mismo, otro) fuego calidez; EMOCIONES, SENSACIONES, intuición, premoniciones; actuales visiónes sin explicación, justificación

  • Negro (uno mismo, otro) juez estricto que usa traje negro; juzgador; crítico; porqué algo es incorrecto; Visión LÓGICA NEGATIVA.

  • Amarillo  (uno mismo, otro) Sol radiante; optimismo; Visión LÓGICA POSITIVA; busca beneficios, qué es bueno.

  • Verde (uno mismo, otro); Pensamiento CREATIVO; posibilidades e hipótesis; nuevas ideas

  • Azul (observador) Cielo; fresco; descriptivo; CONTROL del PROCESO, PASOS, OTROS SOMBREROS; presidente, organizador; pensamiento del pensamiento

Los sombreros de De Bono son indicativos de ambos estados emocionales así como del marco mental (es decir, la perspectiva de la cual se ve un tema). Él observó: Las “emociones son una parte esencial de nuestra capacidad de pensamiento y no sólo algo que extraordinariamente nubla nuestro pensamiento” (1985, p27). Un estilo de pensamiento (o sombrero) no es intrínsecamente “mejor” que otro. Un equipo completo, equilibrado reconoce la necesidad de todos los sombreros para que el equipo pueda considerar todos los aspectos de cualesquiera de los temas a que están haciendo frente.


Beneficios principales del método de los Seis Sombreros para Pensar

  1. Permite decir cosas sin riesgo. Muy fuerte en la prevención de la Espiral del Silencio.
  2. Crea el conocimiento que hay perspectivas múltiples en el tema actual
  3. Es un mecanismo conveniente para la “el cambio de engranaje”
  4. Sirve como regla para el juego del pensamiento
  5. Enfoca el pensamiento
  6. Conduce a un pensamiento más creativo
  7. Mejora la comunicación
  8. Mejora la toma de decisiones

Usando los seis sombreros

En la mayoría de contextos grupales, los individuos tienden a tener la sensación de ser obligados a adoptar una perspectiva específica (optimista, pesimista, objetivo, etc.). Esto limita la maneras y el grado de profundidad en el cual un individual y el grupo puede analizar en su totalidad un tema. Con el Seis Sombreros para Pensar, uno se limita no más a una sola perspectiva en su pensamiento. Los sombreros son categorías del comportamiento de pensamiento y no de la gente en si misma. El propósito de los sombreros es dirigir el pensamiento, no clasificar el pensamiento o al pensador. De hecho, usando un sombrero que sea diferente del que uno acostumbra a usar, uno puede tener la oportunidad de analizar una variedad de nuevas ideas. Usar un sombrero significa deliberadamente adoptar una perspectiva que no sea necesariamente la suya. Es importante que todos los miembros del grupo están enterados de este hecho. Un miembro del grupo debe claramente tener consciencia del color de sombrero que él está usando mientras que hace una declaración. Usar un sombrero claramente identificado separa el ego del rol desempeñado. El método de seis sombreros es útil incluso para el pensamiento de individuos para sí mismos.


Pasos típicos en un curso de seis sombreros. Proceso

Los sombreros se pueden utilizar con una cierta secuencia estructurada dependiendo de la naturaleza del tema. Aquí se propone una agenda como ejemplo para un curso típico de 6 sombreros:

Paso 1: Presente los hechos del caso (el sombrero blanco)
Paso 2: Genere las ideas en cómo el caso podría ser manejado (el sombrero verde)
Paso 3: Evalúe los méritos de las ideas - enumere los beneficios (sombrero amarillo), enumere las desventajas (sombrero negro)
Paso 4: Obtenga la sensación interna de todos sobre las alternativas generadas (el sombrero rojo)
Paso 5: Resuma y cierre la reunión (el sombrero azul)


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Grupo de Interés Especial de Seis Sombreros para Pensar .



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Foro

Discusiones en el Foro sobre Seis Sombreros para Pensar. A continuación puede hacer una pregunta sobre este tema, compartir sus experiencias, informar un nuevo desarrollo o explicar algo.


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Fuentes de Información

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Compare los Seis Sombreros para Pensar con:   Pensamiento de Grupo  |  Espiral del Silencio  |  Perfil de la Administración del Equipo  |  Roles de Equipo Belbin  |  Metodologia Metaplan  |  Teoría del Grupo Central  |  Mapas Mentales  |  Brainstorming (Tormenta de Ideas)  |  Método Delphi  |  Mecanismos Catalízadores  |  Modelo del Cerebro Completo  |  Metodología de Scenario Planning  |  Teoría de Juegos  |  Análisis de la causa raíz  |  Dialectical Inquiry  |  Teoría Restrictiva  |  Análisis del Campo de Fuerzas  |  Inteligencia Emocional  |  Razonamiento Estratégico Analógico  |  Etapa-Puerta


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