Benchmarking[标杆分析]

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内部标杆、竞争标杆、功能标杆、一般标杆及联合标杆。 Benchmarking[标杆分析]解析。

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Benchmarking[标杆分析]例子标杆分析(Benchmarking)是用来衡量组织的流程、活动是否达到了最佳实践水平的系统管理工具。 标杆分析模型在对SBU、部门、组织或公司的同类比较中非常有用,通过比较可以得知组织到底表现如何。 所谓标杆(Benchmark)就是测量的参照点。 “标杆”这一术语大抵上来源于工作中的测量实践,即以刻度尺为工具,以工作台的水平面为基准,来测量工作台上物体的空间高度。


商业上的标杆分析与Kaizen[改善]Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]有关。

 

标杆分析的运用。 优点

传统上,绩效表现的比较停留在对同一组织不同时期的绩效进行比较, 虽然这一比较能够反映出组织的提高发展速度,但是,组织发展的同时,它的竞争对手可能发展得更快,而这一点传统绩效度量法无从反映。


标杆分析的五个类型

  1. 内部标杆分析(Internal Benchmarking对同一组织内的不同事业单元进行标杆分析
  2. 竞争标杆分析(Competitive Benchmarking 与竞争对手的绩效、流程进行标杆分析
  3. 功能标杆分析(Functional Benchmarking 与行业内部的相似业务流程进行标杆分析
  4. 一般标杆分析(Generic Benchmarking 与无关联行业的运营进行标杆分析
  5. 联合标杆分析(Collaborative Benchmarking 在组织集团的成员间联合进行标杆分析,如对某一跨国公司在不同国家的分支机构进行标杆分析

标杆分析的步骤

  • 定义范围
  • 选择标杆伙伴
  • 确定测量方法、单位、指标和数据收集方法
  • 收集数据
  • 分析差距
  • 陈述结果,讨论牵连含义/提高领域/具体目标
  • 制定提高方案
  • 监控提高过程,计划新的标杆分析

标杆分析的成本

标杆分析需要相当大的投入,尽管许多公司都认为投入是值得的。 标杆分析的三项典型成本是:

  • 访问成本 - 包括住宿费用、旅行费用、餐饮费用、礼品费用以及损失的劳动成本。
  • 时间成本 - 标杆分析团队成员要投入大量时间,研究关联问题、寻找标杆企业、进行参观访问,以及执行标杆分析, 使得他们不得不脱离日常工作,因此,需要有替代人员在项目期间,执行他们的正常工作任务。
  • 数据库成本 - 标杆分析已形成制度化的公司发现,创建并维护一个包含最佳实践以及最佳实践公司信息的数据库非常有用。

标杆分析的局限

  • 标杆分析是一个艰巨的过程,项目团队要有巨大的奉献精神。
  • 耗费时间,成本昂贵。
  • 实践中不少标杆分析往往以“我们和他们情况不一样”为诊断结果而告终,或者由于竞争敏感而得不到必需的信息。
  • 最好与同类中的佼佼者进行标杆分析,而且要做到长期持续的标杆分析,因为标杆对象也在不断提高。
  • 标杆对象的成功确实取决于那些被用来比较参照的实践吗? 公司在战略、规模、模式、文化上有无可比性?
  • 采用标杆对象的实践对自己公司有无不利影响?

参考书: Christopher E. Bogan, Michael J. English - Benchmarking for Best Practices [中译本《竞争性标杆管理》,经济科学出版社,2004] -

参考书: Peter Bolstorff, Robert Rosenbaum - Supply Chain Excellence -

参考书: Joe Zhu - Quantitative Models for Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking -


标杆分析 小组


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