Resource Based View of the Firm[RBV,企业资源观](Jay Barney)

知识中心



摘要,论坛,最佳做法,专家提示和信息来源。


总结

传统经济理论认为,在常规情况下,如果市场是完善的话,超额的经济租值将会因为新的竞争者的不断加入、竞争加剧,而变得不可能。 企业资源观则认为,如果企业拥有超常资源,并且通过一定形式的隔离机制防止资源稀释,那么企业就有可能赚取可持续的超常回报。


企业资源观的早期实践者

美国经济学家Edith Penrose是最早提倡企业资源观的学者之一,早在1959年她就提出: “企业不仅仅是一个行政管理单位; 企业更重要的存在形式是生产资源的集合。行政单位的角色和作用是,通过其行政决策来决定这些资源在不同使用者、不同时间的配置。 当我们从这个角度来审视私人公司和评断其规模时,最好的标准是他们所操控的生产资源。” Birger Wernerfelt在1984年表达了同样的观点。


VRIN[VRIN观点] Barney Resource Based View[企业资源观]Jay Barney的企业资源观

多数学者公认Jay Barney是现代企业资源观(RBV)之父。 他的理论(1991)认为,在公司之间可能存在着一种异质或差异,正是这些差异使得一部分公司保持着竞争优势。 因此,RBV理论强调战略选择,认为公司管理的战略任务就是找出、发展和配置这一部分与众不同的关键资源,以谋求最大化的经营回报。

Barney 在1991年发表的《企业资源与可持续竞争优势》 (Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage)一文中明确指出,超常的租值在一定程度上是可以通过“VRIN”资源来获得。这里,VRIN的含义是:

  • Valuable,即有价值的资源,它是公司构想和执行企业战略、提高效率和效能的基础。
  • Rare,即稀缺的资源,资源即便再有价值,一旦为大部分公司所拥有,它也不能带来竞争优势或者可持续的竞争优势。
  • Imperfectly Imitable,即无法仿制的资源,一般需同时具备以下三点特征: 历史条件独特、起因模糊,以及具有社会负责性。
  • Non-Substitutable,即难以替代的资源,不能够存在一种即可复制又不稀缺的替代品。

其他学者的企业资源观

同样都是持企业资源观的学者,但是在对资源形式的认识上却不尽相同,如专利、产权、垄断技术、关系,等等。 多数学者声称,只有那些无形资源才能造就企业与众不同的绩效,所以也只有无形资源才是企业竞争优势的源泉。 Galbreath和Galvin最近研究发现,尽管RBV在理论上确实支持无形资源与企业绩效之间的联系,但是就实践经验来看,这种关联并非总是正确。 对此,有一种解释认为,资源之间可能存在着某种相互关联性,一种资源优势的产生可能要依赖于另一种资源的存在,所以没有哪一种资源——无形资源或是其他资源——能够单独成为所谓的企业绩效源泉。 (美国管理学会最佳论文集,2004 BPS L6)


VRIN资源不是那么容易就能被找到的, 这一点现在越来越清楚,尤其是当我们审视那些被冠以“节约型”的战略工作的时候(Porter,1996), 例如Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]、企业系统工程、Benchmarking[标杆分析]、组织精简,都是为了提高企业效率, 但是,对于行业内的所有竞争者来说,所有这些技术都是开放的,谁都能拿来使用。 它们最多只能构筑其一道临时的可以看得见的栅栏,但是产生不了长期的竞争优势。


企业还现实地面临着一种困境:可得到的资源往往不是可持续的。 有一点很清楚,能够带来竞争优势的无价资源必须难以复制,也就是说不能为竞争对手所轻易仿造和占有。 相反,如果能够被复制,那些“野心勃勃”的竞争对手必然会想方设法得到它。 好了,因为无法复制,企业似乎可以高枕无忧了。其实不然,占据不可复制资源的企业正面临着被竞争淘汰的危险: 他们的优势最终成了他们的绊脚石, 因为这些资源往往是非可持续的。


企业资源观的最新发展

新近的动态能力观(Dynamic Capability Perspective)已经拓展了企业资源观,将其带进了企业能力发展的新境界。 基于路径依赖型学习(Path-Dependent Learning)不断发展起来的能力,将确保企业在竞争者中永远保持领头羊的地位,并持续获取超额回报(Dierickx & Cool, 1991; Teece,1997)。 然而,这决不是说,大多数企业都有能力通过学习曲线效应阻止竞争对手赶超自己。 而是说,企业要确保竞争优势,就必须选择最佳能力发展轨迹(Optimal Capability Development Trajectory):1)这一轨迹要使得企业永远保持先发制人的位置;2)不存在同样高效的替代性轨线。 然而,各种限制性的理性条件却往往会限制企业达到第一个目标,而企业间的等效条件又会阻挠第二个目标的实现。 与此同时,杜绝模仿对企业来说尽管是必须要求,但企业应该认真考虑是否能够利用现有资源、资产或能力来做到这一点。 如此,不管企业资源观的理论和战略已经发展得如何先进,现实中的实践者们却已被置于一个尴尬的境地: 如何才能拥有梦寐以求的可持续竞争优势,这些优势尽管他们不曾拥有,但在理论上却是可以获得的。


Danny Miller最近调查了很多公司,他发现有一部分公司没有完全将公司战略建立在资源或能力之上,相反却是建立于“不对称性”(Asymetry)之上。 所谓不对称性,这里是指其他公司没有的,而且也不能以低成本去复制的一些典型性技能、流程、或者资产。 尽管它们与任何价值创造无甚关系,但它们同样稀少、难以复制且不可替代。 通过发现和重构这些不对称性,将它们嵌入企业的组织设计、战略规划之中,通过适当的市场机会,让它们发挥杠杆作用,最终成为企业的可持续能力。


小组

加入

资源基础观点 小组。



小组 (8名成员)

论坛

新主题

资源基础观点论坛。


Challenges of Managing Conglomerates...
I am currently dealing with following question: what are the challenges of managing conglomerates, starting from the res (...)
9
 
1条评论
Extended RBV Approach
The problem of resource based theory lays in restricted definition of the resources as ontological objects. It seems to (...)
9
 
1条评论
Can 'Product Design Capability' be a Resource for an Organization?
I am trying to fit Product (or Service) Design from the perspective of Resource-based theory, with a special emphasis on (...)
6
 
3条评论
Relevance of RBV When Facing Low Cost Competition
Is the RBV still relevant given the rise of competition from low wage countries (ie China)?
New competitors are not (...)
6
 
2条评论
Strategic Resource Planning
Are there models exercises / solutions available on strategic resource planning?
Any experienced managers in this f (...)
5
 
Relationship Between Isolating Mechanisms / Barriers of Imitation and Company Size
Does anyone know an article that deals with the relationship between isolating mechanisms/barriers of imitation and comp (...)
4
 
Empirical Research of RBV
Did anyone perform empirical research of RBV? If you have any experimental information please share. (...)
4
 
1条评论
RBV in Micro Business?
How is the RBV concept applied in micro business? (...)
3
 
3条评论
Example RBV - Engineering Firm
I am writing a thesis on RBV. One case study is a consulting engineering company. Which are the main features and capabi (...)
3
 
11条评论
Resource Based View of the Firm and SWOT
Resource-based view of the firm is a bit like a SWOT analysis. You analyze all the available resources of the business t (...)
3
 
7条评论
RBV and Comparative Advantage
RBV is also about comparative advantage and strategy.
E. Spulberg at US Kellog University said: "The best strategie (...)
3
 
Resource Based View Identifies Core Competences
The RBV can be viewed as an internal strategic analysis tool of an organisation used to identify its core competences. (...)
2
 
1条评论
The Conditions of RBV are Seemingly Non-Complementary
The two limiting conditions for RBV to be earning sustainable supra-normal returns are seemingly non-complementary. Havi (...)
2
 
1条评论

开始一个新的论坛主题关于资源基础观点

 

最佳实践

注册

关于资源基础观点的最高评价的讨论主题。在这里你会找到最有价值的思路和切实可行的建议。


Resource Based View Industries?
What industries can be said to be heavily based on the resource based view? Why? (...)
33
 
4条评论

Barney Changed VRIN into VRIO
Barney developed the VRIN framework (1991) to VRIO. The "O" stands for the Organisation's capability to support and deli (...)
29
 
3条评论

Limitations of Resource Based View of the Firm
What are the limitations of RBV? Can anyone clearly explain it? Thanks. (...)
24
 
10条评论

Sources for Resource Based View
In order to find possible / potential sources for the resource based view, I recommend you look into the company's:
(...)
21
 
8条评论

Advantages of RBV (benefits)
The resource based view of the firm is a terrific tool for analyzing the presence, or lack thereof, of wealth-creating m (...)
20
 
12条评论

RBV & Financial Capability
The Chinese security regulation commission regulates the access to equity and bond. Only firms which meet the qualificat (...)
16
 
5条评论

专家提示

注册

关于Resource-based View(英语)的高级见解。在这里,您将找到专家的专业建议。


How to Measure Resource Based View of the Firm

Measuring the Existence of RBV in an Organization
Does anyone have an idea of how to measure the existence of RBV in an organization? At least to my knowledge, there isn (...)

How to avoid imitation of Strategic Resources?

Protection of your Strategic Resources Against Imitation
How can barriers to imitation be created? How can we make a competitive advantage into a sustainable one? Here's a lis (...)

Three Schools of Thought for Firm-internal Factors for Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Achieving Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Three schools of thought have now been identified as those focused on firm-internal factors (resources and capabilities) (...)

Differences Between Resources and Capabilities

The 4 Main Differences
These are the main differences between resources and capabilities according to the relevant management literature on the (...)

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why? Because the Internet, wireless devices such as m (...)

A Corporate Theory: Long-term Handhold and Guidance in Turbulent Times?

Inside-out Corporate Strategy, Corporate Visioning
According to Professor Todd Zenger, companies should focus less on competitive advantage (this isn't what really interes (...)

What are Smart Creatives? Traits

R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Innovation, HR, Career Management
To accommodate the strategic demands of the internet age, clever, creative knowledge workers are needed in product/servi (...)

Distinguish Resources and Capabilites

Why the Difference Matters
Scholars Silja Korhoen and Juha S. Niemela argue that distinguishing capabilities from resources and understanding their (...)

Dynamic Capabilities View

VRIN: Strategic Learning
Click on More for an explanation of Dynamic Capabilities, the ability of firms to develop capabilities or competencies t (...)
信息来源

注册

有关资源基础观点的各种信息来源。在这里,您将找到Powerpoint,视频,新闻等可用于您自己的讲座和讲习班。


Resource-based View and Barney's Adapted VRIO Framework In-depth

Resource-based View, Barney, VRIO-framework, Internal Analysis
Presentation about the Resource-based view focusing on the VRIO-framework of Barney. The presentation includes the follo (...)

Theory Behind Barney's Resource-based View of Exemplar Returns

Understanding / Presenting RBV of the Firm
Comprehensive Powerpoint presentation on the background of RbV. (...)

Why Resources are Important?

Funny Picture
Humorous picture clearly shows why resources are important. (...)

Definition, Differences and Relationships between Resources, Capabilities, Competencies and Core Competencies

Core Competencies
Javidan (1998) has made a great contribution to answering the question for the relationship / differences between resour (...)

Porter's Industrial Organization Versus Barney's Resource Based View

Business Strategy, Value Chain Management
This presentation compares Porter's competitive advantage thinking with Barney's Resource Based View, focusing on how co (...)

Capability Lifecycles

Maturity Management
Article by Constance E. Helfat and Margaret A. Peteraf introduces the concept of the capability lifecycle (CLC), which a (...)

The Resource Based View, Comparative Advantage and Competitive Heteroginity

Resource Based View, Comparative Advantage
This paper by Anoop Madhok and Sali Li is primarily concerned with competitive heterogeneity. By revisiting Ricardian ec (...)

The Networked Firm and RBV

Networks, Social Capital
This conceptual paper by Nick Wills-Johnson provides a brief review of and introduces concepts from the social networks (...)

Resource Based View Diagram

Business / Corporate Strategy
Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in (...)

研究链接

注册

自动跳入有关以下内容的其他有用资源资源基础观点。


新闻 视频 简报 书比人好 更多

新闻

视频

简报

书比人好

更多


比较: Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Strategy Dynamics[战略动力学]  |  SWOT Analysis[SWOT分析]  |  Prahalad  |  Porter Five Forces[五力模式]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  3C's  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]  |  Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]  |  Three Dimensional Business Definition[三维商业定义]


返回到分类主页: 决策与评估  |   金融与投资  |   知识与无形资产  |   营销


更多管理方法、模型和理论

小组

您对感兴趣吗资源基础观点?免费注册

通知你的学生

将此复制到您的学习资料中:

并添加超链接至:

链接到该知识中心

将此HTML代码复制到您的网站:

 


关于12manage | 广告服务 | 链接到我们/引用我们 | 隐私 | 建议 | 服务条款
© 2021 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.8 - 最后更新:23-4-2021所有名称™它们的主人的。