All 3 Elements in Expectancy Theory are Mandatory

Expectancy Theory
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Jaap de Jonge
Editor, Netherlands

All 3 Elements in Expectancy Theory are Mandatory

Will your employee work hard for a raise?
Of course management science is not mathematics. But a consequence that should not be overlooked of Vroom's formula M = V * E * I is that even if only one of the 3 elements is zero, the resulting motivation (M) force and level will also be zero!
So if your employee either does not care about obtaining a raise at all (Valence=0) OR believes his hard work will not result in a better performance (Expectancy=0) OR thinks it is very unlikely that the organization will ever appreciate and reward his performance (Instrumentality=0), in any of these 3 cases his motivational level/force will be zero.


Mark, USA

Vroom Theory of Motivation

I agree with Editor's observation. The fact that any one element can be zero will result in a Motivational Force of zero. Regardless of choice, motivation, or behavior, management will be unable to align expectations and confidence levels (expectancy), management will be unable to move in a direction of emotional orientation (valence), and/or satisfy individual perceptions surrounding the organization (instrumentality).

Dan, USA

Vroom Theory of Motivation

Excellent observation, Editor! Thank you for pointing out the significance of ensuring all elements ... Sign up

Inna Borodina
Russian Federation

Calculating Motivation

To make a forecast: Value area motivation (m): m<0 & m >0. Legacy positives motivation (m+) and n... Sign up


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