Valence-consistent Shift in Attribute Framing
One of the contributions of Levin to the theory of framing is the distinction between three types of framing: attribute framing, goal framing and risky choice framing (Levin et al. 1998) (explanation see Three Different Types of Framing and Their Effects).
Levin made another important contribution towards the theory of framing, thereby focusing on attribute framing. He identified a so-called Valence-consistent Shift
in attribute framing. What does he mean by this term?
A Valence-consistent shift means that a positive frame to a certain attribute or typical characteristic of that attribute will result in relatively more positive evaluations compared to a negative frame
To clarify this Levin and Gaeth (1988) gave an example of tasting ground beef (ground beef is crushed meat from cows). Some participants tasted the ground beef in a positive “75% lean” frame and others were tasting the same ground beef in a negative “25% fat” frame.
What happened? The ground beef was evaluated as better tasting and less greasy among the participants who tasted the beef in a positive frame.
Frelinga, T.H., Vincent, L.H. and Henard D.H. (2014) “When not to accentuate the positive: Re-examining valence effects” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol. 124 pp. 95-109
Levin, I.P. and Gaeth, G.J. (1988). Framing of Attribute Information Before and After Consuming the Product. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 374–378.
Levin, I.P., Schneider, S.L. and Gaeth, G.J. (1998), “All Frames are not Created Equal: a Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 76 No. 2, pp. 149-88