Other Mapping Approaches
I'm a bit surprised the way "mapping" is interpreted... Here it's equated with matrices and what is more commonly called "conceptual mapping" which are useful but really on the the tip of the iceberg. I find web crawls, social network analysis, value network analysis and strategic clarity mapping techniques
particularly useful because they're much more clearly linked to data
... The relationships are defined by data collected and described with causal relationships of arrows and nodes. From here you can do all types of informed analysis including conceptual mapping. You can find a paper comparing these methods in the Resources section at the bottom of this page.