Culture Types at the Basis of the Competing Value Framework
In an article called “Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework’s Theoretical Suppositions”, Hartnell and Kinicki distinguish 4 types of culture that underlie the 4 quadrants of the CVF. Each of these four types is at the basis of one area of the CVF:
1. Clan Culture:
High degree of flexibility and an internal orientation. This culture is characterized by an important expectation that human affiliation generates positive emotional attitudes of employees, resulting in organizational success. Another fundamental belief is that trust and commitment to laborers within the organization eases labor participation, involvement and it eases open communication as well. The main values of a clan culture are thus affiliation, membership, support and attachment.
2. Adhocracy Culture:
High degree of flexibility and an external orientation. A core assumption is that changes stimulate creating new resources. The main values within this culture are growth, encouragement, diversity, independence and attention. And the resulting behaviors are taking risk, adjustability and creativity, which will result in innovation and cutting-edge output.
3. Market Culture:
High degree of control mechanisms and an external orientation. The main assumption of this culture is that focusing on achievement generates competitiveness and aggression, which results in short run productivity gains and shareholder value. This culture values competitiveness, achievement and communication. Focusing on tasks, establishing clear objectives, centralized decision making and planning are main behaviors.
4. Hierarchy Culture:
High degree of control mechanisms and an internal orientation. A fundamental assumption is that a clear definition of employees’ will result in employees that meet expectations. This culture values accurate communication, clarification, consistency and routine. A high degree of predictability and consistency is the result.
Source: Hartnell, C.A., Ou, A,Y. and A. Kinicki. (2011). “Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework’s Theoretical Suppositions.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96. No. 4.