Three Types of Performance Appraisals

Performance Management (Appraisals)
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Anneke Zwart
Student (University), Netherlands

Three Types of Performance Appraisals

In employee performance management, performance appraisals are an important method to detect the strengths and weaknesses of employees and improve those through the right trainings and practices.
In fact, we can distinguish 3 types of performance appraisals:
  1. TRAIT APPRAISALS: The first type refers to the physical and/or phychological traits of individuals. Different types of jobs may require different traits, where other traits are generally valuable in any job. For example, a high level of conscientiousness and cognitive ability are generally related to higher performance. As such, it can be relevant to assess individual characteristics of your workforce.
  2. BEHAVIORAL APPRAISALS: This type of appraisal refers to the actions taken by a person, in other words those are the behaviours of individuals. Behavioral appraisals assess what actions individuals take at work, which is different from (but influenced by) the personal traits of that person. This type of appraisal is considered as a better option than a trait appraisal, because actions can be directly observed. Therefore, such appraisals are more valid in evaluating performance.
  3. RESULTS/OUTCOMES APPRAISALS: The last type of performance appraisal is considered the most accurate one. This type measures the objectives achieved through a work process and measures the results that an employee or individual has accomplished over time. The main disadvantages of this approach is that the results are often also affected by factors beyond the control of the individual that is being appraised. Also the objectives might have been set too low or too high to be able to accomplish them. Nevertheless, as organizational success is measured by results, this type of appraisal is still the most accurate measurement.
Source: Lussier, R.N. And Hendon, J.R. “Human Resource Management: Functions, Applications, Skill Development” SAGE Publications

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