Stages in the Negotiation Process (Manning & Robertson)
Negotiation should be viewed as a process of compromise, involving parties with different sets of objectives and values, based on their different vested interests.
It is assumed that more effective negotiators, whilst recognising these different objectives, values and interests, work towards achieving win-win in the longer term.
It is further assumed that it is useful to think about negotiation as a process, with various stages, and with key issues running throughout the whole process. These stages and issues are described more fully below. Specific negotiations are typically face-to-face encounters that are themselves episodes in an ongoing, longer-term relationship.
The 4 main stages in the process of negotiation
are (Manning & Robertson, 2003):
. This involves establishing the issues, getting quality information, preparing the case and preparing for the encounter.
2. The opening phase
. This involves creating a positive climate, establishing the issues, stating your case and finding out their case.
3. Getting movement to reach agreement
. This involves challenging their case, responding to challenges on your case, trading or linking and moving to reach agreement.
. This involves retaining flexibility, summarising and recording agreements, establishing monitoring and review procedures and building for the future.
Thoughout these stages, Manning & Robertson also distinguish a number of Issues in the Negotiation Process
- Fisher, R.; Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991), Getting to Yes: Negotiating an Agreement Without Giving in; Random House Business Books, Cox & Wyman Ltd, Reading, Berkshire
- Kennedy, G. (1993), Everything is Negotiable: How to Get the Best Deal Every Time, Arrow Books, London
- Manning, T & Robertson, B (2003), “Influencing and negotiating skills: some research and reflections – Part II: influencing styles and negotiating skills”, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 35 Iss: 2, pp.60 - 66
- Rackham, N., Carlisle, J. (1978), "The effective negotiator", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 2