What is Management?

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What is Management?
Management... Indeed is a great learning and makes many things easy in their own way. Decision-making, organizing, co-ordinating and work not least are the components which come together in management. A great learning for all times: "MANAGEMENT".

Management is an art and a science
nana boakye
It's an art because it involves a specialized individual in making an organizations goals achieved. It's a science also because it involves the study of humans and the environment in which they live and operate and applying these in making the goals of the organization achieved.

Management is a jungle
At the end mgt is a jungle. There are no single theories, sometimes everything works and sometimes nothing, even if the fundamentals are correct.

Management is a process
Management is a systematic process of taking decisions and implementing them. It consists of various functions like planning, controling, organizing and coordinating.

Management is domain-specific
Management is to decide what to do and get things done. It is a domain-specific concept. Simply discussing what "management" is does not make much sense or don't mean much.
There are so many domains e.g. HR Management, change management, impression management, marketing management, etc.

Management is more than theory
Management is a lot more than the theoretical and bookish concepts. It has everything to do with the situation in which a manager makes decisions , considering the goals of the company at its apex where at the same time the subordinates are also not kept out of the book. The manager who acieves this is the one who is following the definition of management

Management is a group process
Dr. Stella John Samuel
Management is much more than what any individual person or manager can say. It is a process which involves a series of actions and commands by a group of people, who aim at achieving a target or goal set by the organization in which they work.

Management is practical
Sanjay kumar Mohapatra
In real meaning management is not theoretical but more practical. Driving man tactfully, leading them to achieve a proper goal, organizing man and machine into a particular space in a harmonious way, may be considered as a great principle of management. And in brief it may be said that to manage men tactfully is the real management.

Management is developing your employees
Qaiss Alokozai
Can we say developing your employees through your work is management?

What is Management? Definition of management
There is no standard definition of management and the term management is interpreted in various ways depending on the context in which it is used. But one of the earliest definitions of management is given by Mr. Fayol. That's why I salute him.

Management tells what to do
Laxmi Pradad Khanal
Management tells us what to do at what time for what purposes. It explains doing the right things at the right time.

The Best Definition of Management
Management is the attainment of organisational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, controlling and leading.

Management is Co-ordination
Management is the business of co-ordination with command and the right mix of compassion. Good managers do lead but follow the people's perspective and put prejudices and thier own whims and fancies in the backyard...

Process of getting activities completed
Usman Kamal
Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.

Management is the Mother of all Sciences
Peejay van den Berg
Wow, way back in 1999 I was in a position to ask myself: "What is the definition of management? Good news, it took me 10 (ten) years of research and alas I have a definition. You just wont believe it, its simple, compelling and usable. Watch this space to share in my 10 years of labor of inquiry in a book soon to be published. MANAGEMENT IS NOT A DISCIPLINE OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES - IT IS THE MOTHER OF ALL SCIENCES. The question is not whether Management is a science? THE QUESTION SHOULD BE WHETHER SCIENCE IS A SCIENCE.

What is Management?
Bhanu Prakash
Management is getting things done with the aim of achieving goals effictively and efficently.

Management is Common Sense
As a lecturer in management studies, I just consider management as a common sense, may be in a little bit higher degree. What HF said is not beyond the line of my thinking.

What is the meaning of Management? MANAGE MEN Tactfully
Management means: "MANAGE MEN Tactfully".

Management is Pragmatic and Situational
naresh , India, Member
Management is not defined by bookish concepts. It is simply pragamatic in its approach. It varies from situation to situation. We can't define it by some hypothetis.

Management is efficient use of resources
Alka Tomar, Academician, India, Member
Management is efficient use of resources. Who said this?

Management is thinking before doing.
Joey D. Soneja, Entrepreneur, Philippines, Member
There is no one best way of doing things. Management is situational.

Management Definition
Management is derived from 3 words:
Man = means human being
Age = step by step or the time being that we are achieving our goals
Ment = means ends or we can say the target that we will achieve.

Management is Control, Order and Direction
Ruben A. Villanueva
Management for me is control, order, and direction. It's lifeblood is systems, innovation, and standards.

Kunal Bhat, Entrepreneur, India, Member
Through my experience, I have come to understand this: management should be read managemint, i.e. : manage + mint.
Managers manage projects to mint value(s). Values could be monetary & purpose-oriented (as the end goals), or in terms of know-how, skill, capability etc (as intermediate goals).
The end goals/objectives are the purpose while the other intermediate steps are the means. Keeping a focus on the purpose and then identifying & applying the means will lead to successful closures.
Taking a high-level view, the key elements are the objectives, the means and the points-of-failure for the means. If one identifies the points-of-failure which can jeopardize the main and intermediate objectives, a sub-plan should be put in place. The cumulative output of this results into a project plan. This approach aligns with a risk-based style of thinking.To summarize, a manager should manage the means (people, capabilities, processes, tools etc) to mint the purpose (revenue, productivity, savings, quality etc).

Management of Yourself
balram sapkota, Student (MBA), Nepal, Member
Management means to manage yourself first in your way of living, education, behaviour and leadership. Then management for your organization will automatically emerge.

Management is an Improvement Process
Naresh Nagpurkar, Student (MBA), Singapore, Member
Management is a continous process of improvement using the fundamentals of management and techniques viz scientific, human relationships and quantitative approaches.

What is Management?
cheree mckinnis, United States, Member
Management is a mixture of emotional intelligence and trusting. Create ideas with the input of the team, implement and allow the employees to execute with the support from the manager. Leadership isn't just dictating its also allowing the executers to realize the goal of the company while the ideas are being created. All of the suggestions of management are correct depending on the types of situations.

What is Management?
Bantwal Prabhu, Teacher, India, Member
Management is doing the right things first time and every time, based on the evolved laws of nature and human kind particularly ethics for the benefit of all the societies in general and nations in particular.

Management is Sustainable Development
Shakebimam, India, Member
Management is a process of sustainable development, where barriers are continuously done away with for the achievement of organizational goals.

Management Comes Down to Common Sense
None of this make sense to be honest. You see all these crappy managers with MBA's but they lack basic common sense and that's what management is all about.
Businesses cannot be run by what some individual in the 1913's thought. However, I agree the basics/foundations are all the same.
All these theories look great in paper and that's the problem facing most big firms. They see a problem but won't solve it. Rather they hire McKinsey to point out what is obvious to their staff in powerpoints and everyone is happy. But if they asked their own staff what is really happening they would save the money given to the consulting firm and save time (that's what they are lacking basic common sense).

Management is a Combination of Theory and Practice
Dali Horeshka, Business Consultant, Albania, Member
In my perception good management is related to a combination of theory with practice, thinking with acting, personal action with people around you are responsible to manage for and distinguishing the specific within the general. It is an art.

What is Management? Today it's always changing
Patrick Forrester
Because of the complexity of technology today, organizations are always changing to compete. Management is all about organizing, controlling, executing and sharing important information to develop and enhance the growth of others. Management today is always changing to meet new technological trends and to provide a customer friendly environment.
For managers to be effective, development of good interpersonal relationships plays a key role in bridging cultural gaps and promoting partnerships, effective networking teams.
Management involve the use of effective technological tools that will facilitate efficiency and control cost issues. In addition managers should provide training and enhance the skills of their management team.
What is also important is to not only allow for effective change in an organization but also to promote sustainable change. That allows for future improvement as opposed to stagnant change.

What is Management? Discipline
Steven Koh
The fundamental requirement of management is discipline. Discipline is required to ensure the management team as well as the workers follow the system and are disciplined enough to stick to it.
If an issue arises, the manager must be disciplined to troubleshoot in a systematic way.

Management is Like 'Haute Cuisine'
ROGER BERTRAND, Business Consultant, Canada, Member
Management is the art of combining all the knowledge one has: HR, CRM, SRM, finance, accounting, R&D in such a way that the business owner achieves its stated vision.
It is an art because aside from all the science input from finance and accounting, engineering, R&D, marketing, etc. one’s judgment, proceeding from live experience, will ensure the best ingredients in their just proportion are selected to get the recipe right.
For this you need an experienced chef. Only numbers will not do it, although they are compulsory for the experienced chef so he balances them well.

Additionally just a little etymology:
- Etymology of manage (v.)
1560s, probably from It. maneggiare "to handle," especially "to control a horse," ultimately from Latin noun manus "hand" (see manual (adj.)). Influenced by Fr. manège "horsemanship" (earliest English sense was of handling horses), which also was from Italian. Extended to other objects or business from 1570s. Slang sense of "get by" first recorded 1650s. Related: Managed; managing. Managed economy was used by 1933.
- Etymology of management
1590s, "act of managing," from manage + -ment. Meaning "governing body" (originally of a theater) is from 1739.

What is Management? A Push Process to Get Results
Javier Elenes, Business Consultant, Mexico, Member
Management is a process to direct your organization to get results.
Joan Ginebra mentions 4 steps of this process: 1. precisar 2. enseñar 3. medir 4. premiar o castigar).
1. Precisar means Define what shall be done,
2. Enseñar means Teach how to do it,
3. Medir means Measure how the job is done,
4. Premiar / Castigar means Reward / Punish if the results are / or not attained.
However trough this process the manager is pushing the organization, so you shall use a pull process to advance to organization goals, and this is called motivaction (giving motive to take action pulled by a leader who communicates a goal worth to achieve (as "we are building a new country" versus "we need to increase the productivity by 300% to reach international levels").

Management is the Mother of All Sciences
Day Pierre DESAULT, Consultant , France, Member
@Peejay van den Berg: We can say that this definition pretending to be concise and unified makes us think about the question: was the universe first or the laws of physics? Or is the chicken or the egg the start of life?
Management according to my experience and observation is a paradoxical state which transits to both the progress of mankind as to his suffocation, when an Intel chip can perform a trillion operations per second that does not rob us from opur power to manage and to anticipate!

What is Management?
omaralzareby, Student (MBA), Libya, Member
Management is arranging both material and moral possibilties to reach a goal using less time and more ability and efficiency and effectiveness.

What is Management? My Contribution
George Vorster
Here are some attempts to define some words related to management:
- "manage/ing" (verb) = plan, organise, lead, control.
- "manager" (noun) = person who has been assigned the responsibility and authority to manage.
- "management" (noun) = a collective of managers.
- "management" (noun) = the actions required from a manager/management when managing the available resources effectively and efficiently to maximise their contribution, and thereby achieve the strategic and operational objectives of the organisation and ensure a fair return on investment for the shareholders.

Management is Nothing But your Intellectual Power
moq14, Student (MBA), Pakistan, Member
I think the word management has no value itself; it is the intellectual power of an individual to line up or align all the related activities (ie financial activities like budgeting, investments, marketing activities like B2B or B2C, HR activities like deployment or motivation) towards one mean purpose in various time frames and business situations.
So if the time frame changes, the direction of the intellectual power towards the purpose also changes. Just consider Bill Gates or Steve Jobs who could change themselves according to the time frame in different directions with the help of their intellectual power of aligning the situations.

What is Management?
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
It is a system of interconnected and interrelated elements (areas) of 4 management functions, namely: planning, organizing, controlling and leading.

Management is not what You Think!
Artur Silva, Professor, Portugal, Member
I recommend this book from Mintzberg "Management? It's not what you Think!". A lot of concepts are being clarified and redefined while reading it...

What is Management?
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.

What is Management? Reply
Sean Rogers, Entrepreneur, Trinidad and Tobago, Member
Management is the overseeing or stewardship of a given task or operation, which has predetermine outcomes.

What is Management?
Dr.N.Ramanjaneyalu, Professor, India, Member
Management is a continuous process of effective and efficient utilization of available resources for welfare of all the people.

Management is the Process of Applying Management Theories to the Organisation
Timmy Baksh, Analyst, Trinidad and Tobago, Member
The responses, to this question above are referring to theories of management, this is just what they are: theories. Management is the process of applying these theories to the organisation to ensure that the professional and administrative arms of the organisation are operating at an optimum level, as predefined.
Simultaneously, and most importantly, there must be an acceptable level of management succession planning to ensure the future viability of the business entity.

Management is Domain-specific
NGO Chantal, Congo, Member
@Calvin : I agree with your definition, because you say there are many domains to management and they do not share the same definition.
Management is the large, encompassing domain which applies many theories and practices.

Management is a Scientific, Theoretical and Empirical (Practicable) Process
Zedy Zaidy, Student (University), South Africa, Member
Management is a scientifical, theoretical and empirical process comprising component knowledge and system knowledge, value creation and value capture.
- Why is management a science? It is a science in that it is a discipline on its own, like economics.
- Why is management a theory? In that it is non-practical, as it is undertaken at schools.
- Why is management empirical? It is empirical in that it is put into practice, thus it is a practicable field.
As the definition stipulates: management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, plus coordinating or integrating in terms of system knowledge.
- Why does management comprise the component knowledge? Surely speaking, every manager must be knowledgeable of a specific field such innovation, HR, accounting or architecture.
- Why does management comprise system knowledge? This kind of knowledge is used to integrate and link various components so as they may work together.
- Why are value creation and value capture in management? These are key aspects of business models.

What is Management?
FASESIN David, Manager, Nigeria, Member
Getting things done effectively and efficiently through people to achieve predetermined goal is management.
It is left up to the individual in the managerial capacity to employ different management strategies, based on what to achieve to attain the set goal. Here it is is important to know that everyday coaching (edc), using the "GROW" model - i.e. Goal, Reality, Options and What next - is a vital contemporary human development tool to manage the workforce.
This tool is also a management strategy. The tool is not only to make people self-commit, but also makes them exhibit a sense of belonging towards taking ownership of the business with an expected business mindset, aiming at achieving the organisational predetermined goal.

Understanding the Fundamentals of Management
collin kamalizeni, Consultant, Swaziland, Member
Management does centre on the four traditional management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Of these, the most critical and first one is planning:
- You cannot organize if your plans are not in place or well thought out; if you do not exactly know what should be organized.
- For leading human resources the leader must show the strategic direction.
As the elements of planning, organizing and leading are understood, then one can involve in controlling. it's intersting to note that management science has developed these 4 concepts further by focusing on key fundamental aspects of each one of them.
For example, controlling has developed into monitoring and evaluation.

Definition of Management - Integrating the Above
Segun Afe, Accountant, Member
Management is the art and science of planning, organising, directing and coordinating of all available reources towards the achievement of a set goal or target in a corporate environment.

Definition of Management - Improvisation and Explaining
FASESIN David, Manager, Nigeria, Member
I agree with Segun but the definition sounds academical. Present business environment requires improvising some measures and also to be more explicit in explaining some of our professional terminologies in practical terms for better understanding especially to those that are outside our discipline/profession n order to ensure that they are 'carried along'.

Management, Management, Management!
Zedy Zaidy, Student (University), South Africa, Member
Segun, you are academically and scientifically right. Your definition is based on traditional principles of management. Management as described... Is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Some addtional thoughts:
A. If one is working in the R&D department, or the department of innovation and technology, or the department of marketing, we may have to incorporate some other aspects to suit the definition.
B. Also we live in a revolutionary and no longer in an evolutionary environment.
C. Management encompasses several knowledge components:
1. Domain knowledge
2. System or integrating knowledge
3. Value creation knowledge
4. Value capture knowledge
D. Management is an art and science, but someone else may describe management as a process of action or responsibility. It actually depends upon which domain one is in.

Management and Administration: Slight Distinction
NGO Chantal, Congo, Member
Management and administration are not the same thing because management is the science which comprises many functions such as: administration, planning, control, command and so on...
So, for me administration is a small part of management. In other words, management is the mother and administration the child.

What is Management? Bringing Order and Consistency
Sylvana Akosua Apaloo-kpeglo, Student (University), Ghana, Member
@K.Narayana Moorthy: I agree management is about bringing order and consistency into an organization by mapping or drawing up formal plans, structures, and monitor results against the plans.

What is Management? Don't Forget Motivation
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
@Sylvana Apaloo-Djaba: Thanks for endorsing my concept.
Yes, what has been said is true and O.K. But with following additions.
1. It is not only bringing order & consistency, but with high intensity.
2. How about motivation part: One should aim in a work situation to instill self-actualization to pursue inner talents, creativity and fulfillment.

What is the Precise Role of Motivation in Management?
Javier Elenes, Business Consultant, Mexico, Member
@K.Narayana Moorthy: in relation to Motivation, I use the term MotivAction. Yes you read it well... Motiv A ction means Motives to Action:
There are 3 different kinds of MotivAction (2 for Management and 1 for Leadership)
1. EXTERNAL MOTIVACTION: If you have to state the goal, you have to measure the work done and you need to reward / punish good or bad work done to move the organization.
2. INTERNAL MOTIVACTION: If after stating the goal and measuring the performance, you only need to give feedback to your people and they move it (take action). They auto reward / punish themselves if they under- or over-performed.
In these two situations you are PUSHING the organization to move it. Management is historically seen as a PUSH process to achieve results.
3. TRANSCENDENTAL MOTIVACTION: In current turbulent times we need a PULL process, I call this leadership, to move it the organization to a worthy goal, creating a PULL effect to pursue a worthy goal. A leader states and communicates the goal as something worth to follow ("We are creating a world class company", instead of: "We must increase productivity by 30%").

The Role of Motivation in Defining Management
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
@Javier Elenes: There are hurdles to negotiate at each step of business activities, and you need to be absolutely determined to succeed. You can either use a "PUSH" or a "PULL" strategy. Successful managers are those who are those fully committed to the process and that starts with some PUSH and also PULL. It is always helpful to give reasons and keeping it close so that the ultimate goal is always in sight.

The Leader PULLS, the Manager PUSHES the Organization
Javier Elenes, Business Consultant, Mexico, Member
The manager communicates an ORDER, The leader communicate a worthy MISSION to move the organization.
To move the organization through PUSH, as in external motivaction is a slow and sometimes painful process, you need 2 additional steps : setting objectives. measure and reward/punish the good/bad work done.
Moving the organization through PULL, as in internal and trascendental motivaction, is faster. The organization moves as soon as you communicate a worthy mission.
So in brief: pull is more effective than push.
Bigger changes need more of a leadership approach, creating a PULL effect to a worthy mission moving the organization with internal motivaction, in addition to the external motivation PUSH manager approach to move it (measuring and rewarding/punishing good/bad work done.
A final note: You need BOTH PULL and PUSH (leader and managers) to move your organization.

Common Sense in Management
Vicky Jha, Manager, Nepal, Member
@Cass: Common sense - very true - but you have put it in a very harsh way:).
The whole sense of management is to align the complete process and resources to meet the expected goals and most of the times the solution comes from your head instead of big jargon filled power point presentation. Experience does chisel your skills more, in other words adds more common sense.

What is Management
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
I said earlier that management is system of planning, organizing, controlling and leading. Yes, to a reply to @Sylvana Apaloo-Djaba, I said that bringing order - consistency should be linked with high intensity instilling self-actualization with creativity.
Further, as a reply to @Javier Elenes, in business we have to use push & pull depending on situations.
Now further I add that business administration should contain 5 elements: prevoyance, organization, commandment, co-ordination and control. Leading (vs managing) helps to develop employees by turning mistakes into training opportunities which is a tool of success. In control aspects it is good to remember the principle of the HOT-STOVE RULE.

Management is Looking after the HR Process
renuka Chandrakar, Student (MBA), Member
Management means managing the whole process of Human Resources. And this process includes:
- Planning, Organizing, Controlling, Commanding (Primary Process).
- Recruiting, Selection, Compensation, Training and Development, Growth, Succession Planning (Secondary Process).

Management is Manipulation of the Human Capital
Boadu Daniel, Teacher, Member
Management involves the manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise. This implies effective communication: an enterprise environment (as opposed to a physical or mechanical mechanism), implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome.
You have a great website. Thanks.

Management is Control, Coordination and Planning
Justin Mwangi, Partner, Kenya, Member
Management involves controlling human capital, coordinating and planning in order to achieve the overall goals of the organization.

Management as an Organizational Resource Mobilization Process
Dr. Chima .S. Ugwulashi, Nigeria, Member
Management is the system of aggregating organizational resources to achieve set out objectives and goals. It involves globalized action imitating and mobilizing these organizational resources timely in a result-oriented manner.
Management is also the aggregation of persons responsible to initiating such structures and functions and rationally putting those structures in place for the survival of the entire system.

Management Principles
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
@Justin Mwangi's comments are agreed in principle. To it I further add that self-actualization would reduce the conflicts of management.

Difference Between Manager & a Leader:
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
1. Manager (M) does things right while Leader(L) does the right things
2. M focuses on how things should be done, while L focuses on what can be accomplished.
3. M is a conformist, while L is innovation oriented.
4. M is control-oriented, while L is commitment-oriented.
5. M is rules oriented, while L is outcome oriented.
6. M tries to ensure stability of a system, while L energizes the system.
7. M tries to enforce procedures, strategy and objectives, L aims to wards vision, inspiration & courage.
8. M is impersonal and remote, L is highly emotional intelligence oriented.
9. M values diversity, while L aims at team building.
10. M tries to protect status quo, while L build relationships & trust.

Difference Between Adminstration and Management:
K.Narayana Moorthy, HR Consultant, India, Member
In my view:
  • ADMINISTRATION OF A BUSINESS includes performance or business operations and decision making as well as the efficient organization of people and other resources and direct activities towards the common goals and objectives. It includes the associated functions of finance, personnel and MIS services.
  • MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS is the whole of functions that co-ordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives by using available resources efficiently and effectively. It includes planning, organizing, staffing leading or directing. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.

What is Management?
biresh chaubey, Manager, India, Member
The art and science of giving controlled freedom to your team members to act, to react and to set their own goals and targets which ultimately leads to timely achievement of team goals is real Management.
If we can achieve the organisational goals timely along with broad smiles on the faces of team members who are always eager to approach you with their creative ideas, that is real Management.
If you are absent for five days and yet your team maintains its tempo and achieve the set team goals in 9 days while the deadline was given as 10 days that is called real Management.
The question is: how it is possible? In my view only one line sums it up nicely: "SUCCESS IS ALL YOURS AND FAILURES ARE ALL MINE". If we follow this sincerely, not in words but in actions, I bet your team will never allow you to fail.

Changed Definition of Management
biresh chaubey, Manager, India, Member
The simplest definition which is almost on the tip of tongue of all managers is Mary Parker Folett's definition of “Management is the art of getting things done through people.
But how relevant is this today specially in countries like India where almost every fifth employed person is MBA educated and not an illiterate worker like in the past. In my view this principal should be changed as per the present times as "Management is the art of doing things together as a team to achieve the organisational goals which will surely lead to achievement of individual goals".
This means you don't only need to be a good manager, but also a true leader who works with the team hand in hand with utmost sincerity, dedication and compassion towards his team members.
In the field of marketing we often term a person as good manager if he achieves the target and thus often ignore to study the fact that: was he ethical and truthful in achieving the target. But you can fool people once through unethical means; not twice. .

Belkis Monks, Manager, Venezuela, Member
Driving the organization through a simple and complex path with diverse passengers, following existing routes and developing and implementing new strategies on the way to reach the destination (mission, vision and goals).

The Essence of Management
Helen Strong, Business Consultant, South Africa, Member
Management is the process through which opportunities are exploited and problems and challenges are anticipated (or recognised) and solved.
Management is required at all stages of business activities. That is, before, during and after operations.
Good management operates ethically. It optimises use of internal and external resources to deliver a profit, resulting in organisational sustainability. (A profit is not necessarily financial.).

What is Management
Babacar Diouf, Student (University), Senegal, Member
Hi! Management for me is a strategy to influence workers to achieve the firm's goals.
Everybody in the company must clearly understand the objectives of the firm and what is attended to him. A good manager also knows how to anticipate the threats of the internal and external environment and find solutions.
In short, management is the art of managing people, materials and resources to achieve the firm's goal.

Is Management a System?
AQEEL RAZA, Accountant, Pakistan, Member
Everything is moving under a system. A system has principles that control the system as pillars to a roof. The principles describe policies like a root to fruit and the policies describe procedures to use, resulting in reaching a goal.
The goal of any business is normally making a profit. Because of that, every system of human nature comes under management and management is the art of using human nature in getting desired results.

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