Norburn's Match of Company Directors to GOGOs, YOYOs and DODOs
In an article Norburn (1986) tries to categorize directors of Britain’s largest companies and to find a connection with the economic performance of the industries their companies operate in:
- GOGO’s – industries in growth,
- YOYO’s – industries in turbulence, or
- DODO’s – industries in decline.
In other words, he tries to find which managerial characteristics are of great importance to a company in a different stage of its development
, arguing that executive’s traits are of great importance to a firm’s performance (Norburn, 1986).
In general, 3 major aspects are connected to the topic of leadership according to behavior research:
- TRAITS: What qualifies a “natural leader”: strong responsibility, risk-taking, originality, drive, self-confidence, ability to absorb stress, patience, and capacity to structure social interaction systems (Stogdill, 1974); need for advancement, creativity, and primacy of the workplace (Bray, Campbell and Grant, 1974); need for achievement and power (Donley and Winter, 1970), etc.
- BEHAVIORAL STYLE: One of the most famous leadership styles categorization is that of R. Likert (1967.
- SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS: For example economic conditions: they could predicate both traits and leadership style
Norburn (1986) categorizes three groups of factors that can influence or shape a top executive manager
- ECONOMIC ENVIRON: Job-centered, ‘hygiene’ factors, international exposure.
- DOMESTIC ENVIRON: Family influences, locational upbringing, cerebral and physical education.
- SELF-CONCEPT: Company and occupational views, personal beliefs and habits.
Based on these factors and the industry’s performance he obtains the following results after multiple case studies:
|1. Why change companies
|2. Fastest route to the top
|4. Workload increase
|| Not significantly
|5. Company tenure
| 6. Patronage perception
|7. International exposure
|8. Childhood location
|| London and international
|9. Team vs. individual sports
|10. Executive success traits
||Conceptual and creative
||Concern for people
|11. First boss influence
|12. Early retirement
|13. Same career again
Norburn, D. (1986) “GOGOs, YOYOs AND DODOs: Company Directors and Industry Performance”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 101-117
Stogdill, R. M. (1974) “Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research”, Free Press, New York
Bray, D. W., R. J. Campbell, and D. L. Grant. (1974) “Formative years in business: a long term AT&T study of managerial lives”, Wiley, New York
Donley, R. E. and D. G. Winter (1970) “'Measuring the motives of public officials at a distance: an exploratory study of American presidents”, Behavioral Science, 15, pp. 227-236.
Likert, R. (1967) “The human organization: Its management and value”, New York: McGraw-Hill
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