Internal and External Corporate Governance

Corporate Governance
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Best Practices
Jaap de Jonge
Editor, Netherlands

Internal and External Corporate Governance

Corporate Governance (CG) can be viewed as the system by which companies are directed and controlled. Also companies can be held accountable by CG, limiting managerial discretion in order to protect the interests of outsiders in the corporation.
These 'outsiders' can be shareholders, stakeholders, other interested parties or even society as a whole.
Any CG 'system' consist of a large number of mechanisms. We can broadly categorize CG mechanisms into two groups:

1. Internal Corporate Governance
Internal corporate governance encompasses the controlling mechanisms between various actors inside the firm: the company’s management, its board and the shareholders.
In this form, the shareholders and other constituents 'delegate' the controlling function to internal entities or mechanisms, such as the Supervisory Board (in case of two-tier board) or the Board of Directors (one-tier) and/or special committees.

Examples of internal corporate governance mechanisms:
Internal and external corporate governance2. External Corporate Governance
External governance encompasses the influences from outside the firm on the governance of the firm. These can originate from a number of external sources.

Examples of external corporate governance mechanisms:
  • Markets:
    • Labour market (for executives and for employees)
    • Product / services markets in which the firm operates, competition
    • Capital market (debt, equity)(opinions of investment analysts, credit rating agencies, financial media, institutional investors)
    • Market for corporate control (hedge funds)
  • Legal and Supervision
    • National laws and regulations
    • Supranational laws and regulations
    • Corporate governance codes (SOX, OECD)(voluntary or required)
    • Supervisory authorities (central banks)
  • Service Providers
    • Independent auditors, external accountants (annual reports, financial statements)
    • Investment banks (credit facilities, flotation, prospectus)
    • Private equity
    • M&A (takeovers)
    • Legal advice, insurance (Directors and Officers liability)
  • Media (watchdog, guard dog)
  • Relationship with unions
1. Some aspects can be considered internal, external or even both, depending on the organization, governance type and jurisdiction.
2. Depending on the country, the focus on the two mechanisms can differ, for example:
  • In the US and other Anglo-Saxon countries we can generally see a bigger trust in markets/shareholders (shareholder value perspective) with a resulting focus on external corporate governance.
  • Europe and Japan generally rely more on relations/networks/stakeholders (stakeholder value perspective) and consider internal CG-mechanisms as more important.


Ashok Asthana
Consultant, India

Corporate Governance - The Role of the Customer

I feel customers play a very important role in influencing internal governance, since a company, wit... Sign up

Hazem Yassin
Manager, Saudi Arabia

Keep Corporate Governance as Simple as Possible

Dear Jaap your article was very good, concentrated and short with clear idea. In our company we alre... Sign up

Strategy Consultant, India

Internal and External Corporate Governance

The effectiveness in counterbalancing internal and external corporate governance mainly rests with t... Sign up

alim sale
Strategy Consultant, Kenya

Corporate Governance Mechanisms (Intern and Extern)

Thanks for the interesting analysis of all elements that influence good corporate practices. Good C... Sign up

Greenhow, Sweden

Are Sub-consulting Firms part of Internal Governance?

Your examples of external governance mechanisms seem to be external actors who influence the behavio... Sign up

Adam Mohammed Baba
Director, Ghana

Corporate Governance and Local Government Service

As an employee of local government (LG) service, your article has made me see what I will call inter... Sign up

Madan Gopal Agarwal
Business Consultant, India

Corporate Governance

Excellent articulation and perspective, Jaap. The key is self-realisation and willingness of the boa... Sign up

Douglas Ferguson

Corporate Governance and Joint Ventures

How might this structure be applied in joint ventures where there is a 50-50 ownership stake between... Sign up

Adam Mohammed Baba
Director, Ghana

Corporate Governance and Local Government Service

@Adam Mohammed Baba : Thank you Jaap for the excellent comment on my submission. You have added more... Sign up

Greenhow, Sweden

External Influences and CG Mechanisms

I'd appreciate clarification of some of the external "mechanisms". Are you using mechanism as synony... Sign up

AIDA ACUBA, Philippines

Transparency in Internal and External CG

@D P Babu: I agree with your opinion... I believe there must be transparency in good corporate gover... Sign up

Suleiman C. Muttani
Consultant, Tanzania

Corporate Governance is More of Internal Value Than for External Control

I would thank the Mr de Jonge for this interesting topic. I simply define governance as a striking b... Sign up

Student (MBA), Sao Tome and Principe

Good Ethics in Internal and External Corporate Governance

@Madan Gopal Agarwal: I agree with you Madan, I also believe that ethics and ethical leadership play... Sign up


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Special Interest Group

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