From 7 P's to 7 C's of Marketing

Services Marketing
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Best Practices
Omenugha Nelson Obinna
Lecturer, Nigeria

From 7 P's to 7 C's of Marketing

Anyone who has taken a marketing course learned about the 4Ps and later 7Ps of Marketing. They are Place, Price, Promotion, Product. Later People, Physical Evidence and Process were added.
However, there is no doubt that recently the marketplace has changed from an industrial-driven one to knowledge-based one; from just as a place for buying and selling to one of conversation and collaboration; and from a product-based economy to market-based economy.
Internet, digitalization, competition and globalization have changed the entire market space and have caused the above changes (Jobber and Ellis-Chadwick, 2013).

As a result, in the present marketspace, customers are now king and a key determinant of which way and how the market goes (Fill, 2011). Customers are now better informed and very selective, they seek personalization and want value from the market (Miles, 2012).

Consequently, the known 7 Ps of marketing are changed to 7 Cs to reflect these new market realities that place a premium on customer’s needs and wants (Miles, 2012). The seven marketing Cs are:
  1. Product ⇒ CUSTOMER: Product changed to Customer given that businesses have to consider and reflect the aspirations and wants of customers a lot more than before when producing products.
  2. Price ⇒ COST: Price has now been replaced by the Cost to satisfy the customer.
  3. Place ⇒ CONVENIENCE: Convenience which denotes easy to buying has replaced the P of Place.
  4. Promotion ⇒ COMMUNICATION: Communication has replaced Promotion, as businesses are fast learning to transact, dialogue, engage and collaborate with consumers on their needs and wants before customizing or producing such need.
  5. Physical Evidence ⇒ CREDIBILITY: Physical Evidence has been replaced with Credibility as present market demands ‘Doing what you say you will do when you say you will do it’. Customer trust has to be earned.
  6. Process ⇒ CONNECTION: Present businesses engage and empower customers to generate brand loyalty. Connection replaced the Process.
  7. People ⇒ CUSTOMER SERVICE: Build strategic relationship with customers rather than just focusing on your People.
Fill, C. (2011) Essentials of Marketing Communications, England, Pearson Education Ltd.
Jobber, D., Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2013), Principles and Practice of Marketing, 7th edn, Berkshire, McGraw-Hill Education.
Miles, J.A. (2012) Management and Organization Theory: A Jossey-Bass Reader, San Francisco, Wiley Imprint.


Jaap de Jonge
Editor, Netherlands

History from Marketing 4 Ps to 7 Ps to 4 Cs to 7 Cs

Thanks Omenugha for sharing this. Indeed in simple terms and chronological order: 1960 (McCarth... Sign up

Manager, India

From Marketing Mix 4 P's to 7 C's

Thank you Mr. Omenugha Nelson Obinna, for this wonderful explanation on the move from product-based ... Sign up

Management Consultant, Saudi Arabia

From 7Ps to 7Cs: Cost doesn't Cover all Pricing Aspects

Hi Nelson, good thinking. But Price includes many factors, Cost is just one of them. Therefore if on... Sign up

Ricardo Bravo-Montenegro, Peru

From Organization to Customer Approach

Thanks, the approach from the point of view of the organization was replaced by an approach from the... Sign up

Mudukula Mukubi
Business Consultant, Zambia

Consumer Focus yes, but Still with Product Value: 7PC

Given the increasing uniformity in product quality (the goods and services) offered by different fir... Sign up

Yemi Smith
Management Consultant, Nigeria

The Evolution of Marketing Remains Centered around Value

Marketing is quite extensive and keeps evolving. Both as a function, course of study and life style.... Sign up

Ibrahim Ali, Saudi Arabia

7C - Cost Factor has many Sub-factors

Hi, that was great subject and discussions. I agree with the cost factor but I think it needs more ... Sign up

aziza abubakr

From 7Ps to 7Cs Not for all Industries?

I think that this concept of 7 Cs is most effective in highly automated organizations with high stan... Sign up

Andreas J. Klemm

The 7 A's Marketing Mix - A Holistic Approach

A good way of explaining the 7C's. However, as with most summaries, the summary can't cover the full... Sign up

David Elmo
Turnaround Manager, United States

An Issue with Connection

While the C's have been evolving for sometime, I would submit that "Connection" misses the point of ... Sign up

Khalil Rajati
industrial enginer, Iran

7Cs of Marketing Mix not for All Products and Industries

The 7 C's are not for all products. They need to be changed in relation to a lot of factors such as ... Sign up

Mkhumbuzi Ncube
Project Manager, Zimbabwe

Development from 7Ps to 7Cs Interesting

It's a very interesting topic and/but we should not discard the 7 Ps yet… A close look at the subje... Sign up

Patrick Mulvey
Management Consultant, United States

4P to 7Cs Discussion

Excellent discussion. As with any framework, these are not meant to imply exhaustive coverage, but r... Sign up

Ramji Sharma, PhD
Professor, Nepal

7Ps Vs 7Cs - Not satisfied with Cost, Communication & Connection

Among the 7Cs, "Cost" may not carry the essence of "Price", "Communication" simply seems underweight... Sign up


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