Total Productive Maintenance

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Description of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Explanation.


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Definition Total Productive Maintenance. Description.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a proactive and collective manufacturing approach to maximize the effectiveness of equipment, machines or entire production sites.

Instead of waiting until a machine actually breaks down and calling the assistance of maintenance or repair personnel (Breakdown Maintenance), machine operators themselves  ("Autonomous Maintenance") perform routine maintenance tasks ("Preventive Maintenance").

On top of that, maintenance operators perform equipment modifications that will improve its reliability. These modifications are also incorporated into new equipment. This is called Maintenance Prevention.

The combination of this preventive maintenance and maintenance prevention is called "Productive Maintenance".

History of Maintenance and TPM

In short, we can distinguish 4 approximate and overlapping development stages in the history of maintenance:

  1. Breakdown Maintenance ( stone age -1950). Since the stone age (up to 2.5 million years ago), humans have used tools and discovered the need for maintenance of their equipment when it broke down (this period can be referred to as the BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE PERIOD).
  2. Preventive Maintenance (1950 - 1960). It took until around 1950 in Japan for some Japanese engineers to start with actively lubricating and replacing certain parts BEFORE they actually broke down (PREVENTIVE  MAINTENANCE PERIOD). Often parts were replaced on a time-basis, while they could have lasted longer. An expensive practice. Nippondenso, part of Toyota, was the first company in Japan to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960.
  3. Productive Maintenance (1960 - 1970). In 1960 productive maintenance was a new trend to further professionalize this process (PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PERIOD). The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve the optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.
  4. Total Productive Maintenance (1970 - ). The development of TOTAL productive maintenance began in the 1970'. Typical for this TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PERIOD is that all employees are being involved in the effort to improve equipment and machine availability.

8 Pillars of TPM

Goals of TPM

  • The main target of TPM is to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve the optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.
  • All employees are being involved in the effort to improve equipment and machine availability.
  • Prevent any type of loss: hence the motto of TMP: "Zero errors (defects), zero accidents, and zero loss".
  • Important side effects are safety, hygiene and environment.

The Eight Pillars of Total Productive Maintenance

There is no precise agreement upon its exact building blocks, but the following eight pillars of TPM are mentioned frequently:

  1. Focused Improvement (Kobetsu Kaizen) - This pillar aims at:

    a) Efficient equipment utilization

    b) Efficient worker utilization

    c) Efficient material & energy utilization.

  2. Planned Maintenance. Focuses on increasing availability of equipment & reducing breakdown of machines.
  3. (Early Management and) Initial Flow Control. Establishes a system to launch the production of new products & new equipment in a minimum start up time.
  4. Education and Training. Formation of autonomous workers who possess the skills & techniques for autonomous maintenance.
  5. Autonomous Maintenance (Jishu Hozen) - This means "Maintaining one's equipment by oneself". There are 7 steps & activities of Jishu Hozen:
  6. Quality Maintenance (Hinshitsu Hozen) - This establishes the machine conditions that will prevent the occurrence of defects required to sustain Zero Defect.
  7. (Administrative and) Office TPM. Create an efficient office to eliminate losses.
  8. Safety, Hygiene and Pollution Control. SHE aims at creating a safe and healthy work place where accidents do not occur, hazardous areas are uncovered and improved, and to perform activities to preserve the environment.

Foundation of Total Productive Maintenance

The foundation of TPM are Kaizen's 5S of workplace management (housekeeping): Seiro, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke or: Tidiness, Orderliness, Cleanliness, Standardized Clean-up and Discipline).

TPM is also called "Total Productive Manufacturing".

Total Productive Maintenance Forum
  Preventive Maintenance Checklist
Preventive maintenance is related to organizations that manufacture products (Manufacturers). Preventive maintenance is a schedule an organization should implement in order to increase productivity of its products and to reduce the probability of a b...
  Predictive Maintenance
How does "predictive maintenance" fit into the description given above?
For me always the development line was corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance and finally predictive maintenance....
  Effectiveness of Total Productive Maintenance
How do you evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a TPM system?...
  TPM Implementation in Cosmetics Plant
The implementation started partially in 2009 and they obtained huge benefits, mostly in economics ways, so they decided to kick off TPM in all plants, it's a lot of work but it has to be done....
  Accidentless Total Productive Maintenance
Work-related-accidents have to be minimized right up to the near zero level since halting production at any stage is loss of revenue plus less production output. As Vastu consultant, I can say if machines are rightly oriented with a proper pro...
  TPM in Cement Production
Looking for contacts to get information about re-developing and re-implementing our TPM program for a large cement plant. This is not a request for proposal to consult for us, I am looking for contacts who work in a plant now that has a TPM program ...

Total Productive Maintenance Special Interest Group

Special Interest Group


Best Practices - Total Productive Maintenance Premium

Expert Tips - Total Productive Maintenance Premium

Resources - Total Productive Maintenance Premium

Extensive Introduction into TPM

This presentation provides an extensive introduction into Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and and includes the following sections:
1. Introduc...
Usage (application): TPM

Maintenance Execution and Shutdown Management

This presentation is about maintenance execution and shutdown management, and includes the following sections:
1. Maintenance Execution
Usage (application): Maintenance Management


Total Productive Maintenance


Total Productive Maintenance


Total Productive Maintenance


Total Productive Maintenance

Compare with: Kaizen  |  Deming Cycle  |  Training Within Industry  |  8D Problem Solving  |  Six Sigma  |  Value Stream Mapping  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Lean Production  |  Waste Management  |  World Class Manufacturing  |  Zero Defects

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