(Customer Based) Brand Equity Model (Keller)

Knowledge Center

   

Description of Keller's Brand Equity Model. Explanation.

 

Customer Based Brand Equity Model

The Customer Based Brand Equity Model (CBBE) by Keller. Description

The Customer Based Brand Equity Model (CBBE) by Kevin Lane Keller describes the process of building a strong brand.

The CBBE Model is based on the branding idea that in order to build a strong brand, you must shape how customers think and feel about your product or brand (see: Positioning). You have to build the right type of customer experiences around your brand, so that they have specific, positive thoughts, feelings, beliefs, opinions, and perceptions about it. When you have strong brand equity, your customers will buy more from you, they'll recommend you to other people, they'll be more loyal, and you're less likely to lose them to competitors.


The six dimensions of Keller's Brand Equity Model

The model describes six dimensions of "brand-added value", defined by Keller as "The differential effect that consumers brand knowledge has on their response to the marketing of that brand". These 6 dimensions are: brand salience, brand performance, brand imagery, consumer judgments, consumer feelings and brand resonance.


The four steps of Keller's Brand Equity Model

According to Keller, there are 4 steps that one should follow in a fixed order to build and manage a brand that customers will support. Together these 4 steps make up his pyramid-shaped CBBE model. They represent 4 fundamental questions that customers will ask (subconsciously) about the brand. The 4 steps to build strong customer brand equity are:

  1. BRAND IDENTITY - Who are you?
    In this first step, the goal is to create the identity of the brand and "Salience" (awareness) about it. You have to make sure that your brand stands out. And that customers recognize it and are aware of it. Is the brand easy to recognize, is it top-of-mind and is it mentioned spontaneous? A clear association must be established in the mind of the consumers between the brand and its product class (see: Segmentation). The brand perceptions should also be "correct" in the various stages of the buying process.

  2. BRAND MEANING - What are you?
    In step 2 you identify and communicate what your brand means, and what it stands for. There are 2 important building blocks in this step: "performance" and "imagery":
    • "Performance" reflects how well your product actually meets your customers' needs (functionality). Such performance consists of 5 subcategories:
      • Primary characteristics and features
      • Product reliability, durability, and serviceability
      • Service effectiveness, efficiency, and empathy
      • Style and design
      • Price
    • "Imagery" means how well your brand meets your customers' needs on a social and psychological level (values and meaning). An increase in brand imagery can be achieved directly (experiences with a brand) or indirectly (advertising, word of mouth).

    Ultimately, the two dimensions serve to achieve certain brand associations that are both strong, positive and unique (in this order). The scores on these dimensions can be seen as an important indicator for any future brand loyalty.


  3. BRAND RESPONSE - What (do I think or feel) about you?
    There are 2 main ways in which customers may respond to a brand: by making "judgments" and by expressing their "feelings":
    • "Judgments": Customers constantly make judgments about your brand. Judgments fall into 4 subcategories:
      • Quality: Customers assess a product or brand based on its actual and perceived quality.
      • Credibility: Customers assess credibility in three dimensions:
        • Expertise, including innovation
        • Trustworthiness
        • Likability
      • Consideration: Customers assess how important your product is for addressing their unique needs.
      • Superiority: Customers assess how good your brand is compared to brands from your competitors.
    • "Feelings": Customers also express how your brand makes them feel. This may be directly about the product/brand, but could also include emotional responses how the brand makes them feel about themselves. In the CBBE model, there are actually 6 positive brand feelings:
      • Warmth
      • Fun
      • Excitement
      • Security
      • Social approval
      • Self-respect

  4. BRAND RESONANCE - What about you and me?
    In this phase the question is answered whether the consumer wants to enter into a (sustainable) relationship with the brand. If he / she is willing to do this, there is real brand loyalty. The consumer then identifies to a large extent with (the values of) the brand and is willing to invest in the relationship. This will manifest itself in repeat purchases, a reduced susceptibility to information from competitors and willingness to pay a slightly higher price.
    "Resonance" is at the top of the brand equity pyramid. Because it is the hardest, but also the most rewarding brand equity level to accomplish. Resonance exists when the consumer has a high level of awareness and familiarity with the brand and holds some strong, favourable, and unique brand associations in memory. Resonance consists of 4 subcategories:
    • Behavioral loyalty: This includes regular, repeat purchases.
    • Attitudinal attachment: Your customers love your brand or your product, and they see it as a special purchase.
    • Sense of community: Your customers feel a sense of community with people associated with the brand, including other consumers and company representatives.
    • Active brand engagement: Customers are very loyal to your brand (even when they are not buying or using it). Examples: brand club memberships, participating in online forums or marketing events, and registering as follower or "friend" in certain social media.

Source: Keller, K.L., 1997, 2012, "Strategic Brand Management - Building, Measuring and Managing Brand Equity", Prentice Hall, Pearson.


Special Interest Group - Customer Based Brand Equity Model


Special Interest Group (2 members)


Forum - Customer Based Brand Equity Model  

In the forum section you will find recent discussions within this knowledge area.



Best Practices - Customer Based Brand Equity Model

In the best practices section you will find the best forum discussions within this knowledge area.


  What is Brand Equity? Definition (7 reactions)
What exactly is brand equity and what is the strategic impor...
 
 
 
 

Expert Tips - Customer Based Brand Equity Model

In the expert tips section you will find advices from experts within this knowledge area.


 

What are Attributes of Strong Brands?

Brand Management, Brand Valuation...
 
 
 

A Closer Look Into Customer Value

Customer Value Analysis, Strategic Marketing, Innovation Strategy...
 
 
 

Four Ways in Which People Experience Any Organization

Corporate Reputation, Customer Perception, Customer Experience Management, Online Reputation...
 
 
 

The Need for Brand Authenticity

Branding...
 
 
 

Why are Brands Often So Similar? Understanding Brand Similarity/Parity

Branding, Brand Management, Brand Parity, Brand Similarity, Know Model, Brand Differentiation...
 
 
 

Nationalism and Patriotism in Corporate Brand Communication Strategies

Corporate Branding, Corporate Reputation, Corporate Nationality, Corporate Patriotism, Corporate Nationalism...
 
 
 

Customer Relationship TYPES

CRM, Relation Marketing, Branding...
 
 
 

How to Better Understand your Customer's Needs?

Customer Targeting and Strategy...
 
 
 

Customer Experience Management Framework

Experiential Marketing...
 
 
 

Brand Engagement of Consumers in the Digital Age

Branding, Brand Management, Marketing, Advertising...
 
 
 

Three Dimensions in How Global Brands are Evaluated by Consumers

Global Branding, Corporate Reputation, CSR, Globalization...
 
 
 

Brand Relationship Quality

Branding, Brand Management, Brand Differentiation, Brand Relationship...
 
 

Resources - Customer Based Brand Equity Model

In the Resources section you will find powerpoint presentations, micro-learning videos, articles, news items, etc. within this knowledge area.


Customer Value Management

Organizational Management, Value Creation...
 

Steve Jobs on Brand Strategy and Core Values

Marketing, Branding, Strategic Vision, Core Values...
 

Brand Stretching and Extension

Brand Management, Brand Identity, Global Brand, Meta Brand...
 

Customer Segmentation by Emotion: The EMO-index

Consumption Behavior...
 

Brand Identity and Brand Equity: Nike versus Adidas

Brand Management, Branding...
 
 

News about Customer Based Brand Equity Model


     
 

Videos about Customer Based Brand Equity Model


     
 

Presentations about Customer Based Brand Equity Model


     
 

Books about Customer Based Brand Equity Model


     
 

More about Customer Based Brand Equity Model


     

Compare with: Brand Personality Model  |  Brand Identity Prism  |  Reputation Quotient  |  Brand Asset Valuator  |  Branding  |  Brand Management

Special Interest Group Leader

You here? Sign up for free


 

Return to Management Hub: Communication & Skills  |  Marketing  |  Strategy

More on Management  |  Return to Management Dictionary  | 


This ends our Brand Equity Model summary and forum.



About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
2019 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.0 - Last updated: 23-5-2019. All names of their owners.