Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]
(Weber)

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权威的三种分类。 Max Weber等人的Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]解析。 (‘22)

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有性格魅力的领袖Mahatma Gandhi什么是魅力型领导? 释义

根据德国社会学大师Max Weber的定义,魅力型领导(Charismatic Leadership)就是“基于对一个个人的超凡神圣、英雄主义或者模范性品质的热爱以及由他揭示或者颁布的规范性形态或者命令”的权威。在这种权威类型下,具有克里斯玛的领袖的魅力超出了人们的日常生活, 他将这种魅力(Charisma定义为“存在于个体身上的一种品质,超出了普通人的品质标准,因而会被认为是超自然所赐,超凡的力量,或者至少是一种与众不同的力量与品质”。 这些品质普通人难以企及,往往被视为超凡神圣和具有模范性质,或者至少他们会将具有这种魅力品质的人视为领袖。 由于这种魅力超出了人们的正常生活,所以它难以用理性、美学或者别的观点加以解释。


具有超凡魅力的人有化繁为简的高超能力(如:马丁 路德金用一句“我有一个梦想”就表达了无穷深意); 他善于利用符号、类比、比喻以及故事进行沟通和交流。 他无畏风险,是一个天生的乐观主义者,他具有强烈的反理性、反传统色彩,往往被视作异端。


和得到非凡表现从组织成员,有性格魅力的领袖被生动描述,当有Social Power Basis[社会权力基础]谱写音乐周转,发射新的企业,启发组织更新的组织英雄或不可思议的领导。 魅力型领导能够激发信心、信任和信仰, 当然,这不是说由此而生的组织使命就是正确的、符合道德规范的、终将成功的。
 

魅力型领导的起源。 历史

1920年代,韦伯区分了三种作为支配形式的领导、统治和权威的理想类型:

  1. 魅力型权威(基于家族、宗教),
  2. 封建/传统型权威(基于家族、世袭、封建),
  3. 官僚/法理型权威(基于现代法律、官僚体系)。

Robert House(1977)用了4个短语来定义魅力型领导:

  1. 支配性的。
  2. 强烈感染的。
  3. 充满自信的。
  4. 具有强烈的个人道德观感。

Conger & Kanungo(1998)描述了魅力型领导的5个行为属性:

  1. 远见卓识。
  2. 环境敏感。
  3. 成员需求敏感。
  4. 敢于冒险。
  5. 反传统。

最近,又有人用戏剧性(Theatrical)来描述魅力型领导(Gardner & Alvolio, 1998) : 魅力型领导就是一种富有戏剧性的印象管理过程,这一过程包括:取景、编剧、搭台、演出。 比较: EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]


魅力型领导的运用。 应用

魅力型领导方法的步骤。 流程

Jay Conger(1989)提出了魅力型领导四阶段模型:

  1. 对环境作持续评估形成愿景
  2. 运用动听的、说服性的语言和组织成员进行愿景沟通
  3. 构建组织成员的信任和忠诚。 下属出于自愿地、而非被强迫地支持领导者实现愿景。 领导者进而构建组织成员对他本人及目标愿景的信任和信心, 做到这一步,需要领导者的冒险精神、非传统的知识和经验、以及自我牺牲。
  4. 实现愿景。 运用角色见模、授权以及一些非传统技术。

魅力型领导的优势。 优点

  • 强势领导,绝对服从。
  • 尤其适用于困难时期或危险情境,如组织突变时。 比较: Crisis Management[危机管理]
  • 有效。 如果领导者的愿景正确,其领导力无疑极为高效。
  • 修辞能力。 比较: Framing[心理定格]
  • 精力充沛、内在清晰、远见卓识、反传统、具有模范性。

魅力型领导的局限。 缺点

  • 强势领导,绝对服从。 日常月久,领导着身边会聚集的都是“唯命是从者”。 代表性差。
  • 具有魅力型品质特征的领导者毕竟还是少数。
  • 容易自我陶醉。 忽略现实。 对他人不敏感。 比较: Seven Signs Of Ethical Collapse[伦理的崩溃七个标志]
  • 缺乏责任感。 无内在道德束缚。 领导者的个人价值观尤为重要, 这样的领导者即能够成就组织, 也能够毁灭组织。
  • 变化莫测。 有潜在危险。

魅力型领导论坛
  Peter Drucker on Charismatic Leadership
In the late 1980s, I watched an hour-long interview with Peter Drucker. He was asked what he thought of 'charismatic leadership.' I will paraphrase his reply because I've referred to it many times in the last 20+ years, especially since jan. 20, 2009...
     
 
  How Charismatic Leadership is Perceived in Diiferent Societies
I suppose that charismatic leadership has a different meaning in different societies and organizations.
1. In a society, coming from dictatorial and one-man-leadership, a charismatic leader will have the abilities as mentioned, but with t...
     
 
  Personal Suffering by Charismatic Leader
One element which enhances charisma is personal suffering undergone by the charismatic leader. This aspect is often not considered explicitly by researchers but it is very important as increases bonding between the leader and the followers....
     
 
  Organisational Chart of a Charismatic Authority
Colleagues can anyone suggests an org. chart used in a charismatic organisation?...
     
 
  Ethical Behavior Crucial in Charisma
Almost every political leader has its own charismatic attitude in certain situations. However, without moral or ethical behavior in the implementation of policies, we can not speak of charismatic leadership. Because without this, no charisma s...
     
 
  Charismatic Leadership versus Inspirational Leadership
There is a difference between charismatic leadership and inspirational leadership: while inspirational leaders have charisma and charismatic leaders inspire their followers, the main distinction is that in charismatic leadership the leadership rel...
     
 
  The Way Out of Charismatic Leadership. Transition
Throughout the world we are seeing charismatic leaders suffering the penalty of not quiting whilst they were ahead. The failure to implement a transition to a balanced normality always seems to be the problem.
To be a charismatic l...
     
 
  Goal Oriented, Involving and Engaging Leadership
In their article 'Assessing Leadership Styles and Organisational Context', Victor Dulewicz and Malcolm Higgs (Journal of Managerial Psychology, 2005, Vol. 20 Iss: 2, pp.105 - 123) group leadership into three categories:
1. Goal-oriented L...
     
 
  Female Charismatic Leaders
Are there or have there been any female charismatic leaders in past or recent history, or is this mostly a male dominated type of leadership?...
     
 
  Charismatic and Toxic Leadership
The difference between a charismatic leader and a toxic leader (Lipman-Blumen) can be a narrow one. The recent banking crisis has shown us that a narrow circle of charismatics can sweep others into unethical patterns of behaviour and excess ca...
     
 
  Charismatic Leadership versus Transformational Leadership
I understand charismatic leadership. However, when looking at transformational leadership, there is so much integration and similarity that I am struggling to define what seperates the two....
     
 
  Charismatic Leadership Differentiated
Charisma... Is the distinguishing element of charismatic leadership. Charisma is contagious because of the charm content. Charming people can be very influential. Consequently, charismatic leaders are influential because charisma elicts emotio...
     
 
  Charismatic Leaders are Trait-driven: Neo-charismatic Theory of Leadership
A trait is a tendency you have most probably inherited although it could have been learned.
A behavior is an action.
Here is an example. Let's say you get impatient in traffic. That is a trait. Once you yell at somebody, that ...
     
 
  Conducive Circumstances to Charismatic Leadership
Charismatic leadership is a big advantage when it comes to very complex social situation where people strength is the key. The leader inspires the masses with contemporary ideals relevant for the society and the objectivity of unity is met....
     
 
  Disadvantages of Charismatic Leadership
One of the minus points of charismatic leadership is that the whole environment is not conducive for personal development. Either deliberately or otherwise, charismatic leaders tend to act as a block for upcoming talents. This is one of the ...
     
 
  Know the Way, Show the Way and Go the Way...
A CHARISMATIC LEADER is the one who: Knows the Way, Shows the Way and Goes the Way!...
     
 
  Current Charismatic Leaders
Who, at the present moment do you consider to be prominent charismatic leaders in the world today? Why?...
     
 
  Zuma: Charismatic Leader?
Is president Zuma a charismatic leader or not?...
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Charismatic Leadership 高级帐户
 

The Special Abilities of Charismatic Leaders

According to Lussier & Achua (2010), charismatic leaders have the ability to:
- Garner strong personal attraction from followers;
- A...
Usage (application)Understanding Charismatic Leadership
 
 
 

How and When Ghandi Became a Charismatic Leader

More about the mechanisms behind Charismatic Leadership can be found in a biography of Mahatma Ghandi (Eknath Easwaran: Gandhi The Man - The Story of ...
Usage (application)Analysis of Ghandi Leadership, Biography
 
 
 

The Charismatic Leader is a Paradox

A leader leads. With theatrical or other attributes of charisma, certain people lead the led very fast. They accelerate the progress. They may generat...
Usage (application)How Charismatic Leaders Often Become Led...
 
 
 

What is the Most Important Attribute of a Leader?

According to recent research by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, being forward-looking - envisioning new possibilities and creating a shared vi...
Usage (application)Quantitative Research Results
 
 
 

Why can Charismatic Leaders be so Powerful?

French and Raven have distinguished 6 bases of social power (excluding a 7th one: connectio...
Usage (application)Understanding the Mechanisms behind Charismatic Power
 
 
 

Acronym: CHARISMATIC Leadership Traits

C - Challenges his/her boundaries
H - Honors his/her word
A - Allows others to be empowered
R - Results driven
I - Influential
...
Usage (application)Remembering Charismatic Traits
 
 
 

Organodynamics: the 3 Laws at the Basis of Performance in Organizations

Sherwood (2014) introduces the concept of organodynamics, a concept that explores the level of performance that can be achieved by organizations. In o...
Usage (application)Strategic Performance Management, Leadership, Corporate Mission, Corporate Culture
 
 
 

The Role of Rhetorical Competence in Charismatic Leadership

In past research, only little attention was paid to the relationship that exists between Charismatic Leadership and Rhetorical Competence. An interest...
Usage (application)Charismatic Leadership, Storytelling, Visionary Leadership
 
 
 

The Relationship between the Power of Leaders and Overconfidence

Fast et al. (2012) researched the relationship between power and overconfidence. In many cases it can be seen that decision making by power holders is...
Usage (application)Leadership, Power, Leadership Development, Executive Education
 
 

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比较: EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Results-Based Leadership[业绩导向领导]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]  |  Framing[心理定格]  |  Crisis Management[危机管理]


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