Expectancy Theory[期望理论]
(Vroom)

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基于个体因素的员工绩效表现。 Victor Vroom的Expectancy Theory[期望理论]解析。 (‘64)

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Expectancy Theory[期望理论]

何为期望理论? 释义

Victor Vroom的期望理论(Expectancy Theory)的研究范畴是动机与管理。 Vroom的理论假定,人类的行为总是从各种可能方案中进行有意识选择的结果, 选择的目的就是为了最大化快乐、最小化痛楚。 Vroom与Edward Lawler、Lyman Porter等人共同认为,员工的劳动行为和他们的个人目标之间的关系并不像从前科学家想象得那么简单。 Vroom意识到雇员的表现根据各自的因素例如个性、技能、知识、经验和能力。


期望理论认为每一个体都为自己设定了不同的人生目标,并对此怀有一定的期望,他们的积极性正因为有期望才被调动了起来。


期望理论的期望值

  • 主观努力与客观绩效之间存在正向相关的关系,
  • 优秀的绩效将会得到相应的奖赏,
  • 这一奖赏使得个体的某一重要需求得到极大满足,
  • 满足需求的热望,又恰恰是个体进行主观努力的力量之源。

Vroom的期望理论依据以下三种信念。


期望理论的信念

  1. 效价(Valence。 效价是一个心理学名词,指人们对于行动结果的价值评价(奖赏)。 员工所期望的回报既包括外在的如金钱、升职、假期、收益,也包括内在的如满足感。 管理人员必须识别员工的需求,并按照员工需求调整奖赏机制。

  2. 期望值(Expectancy。 员工们对于所从事工作能否达到某种目标的可能性有不同的期望值和信心程度。 管理必须发现什么资源、训练或者监督员工需要。

  3. 手段工具(Instrumentality)。 员工们对于期望是否能够真正得到满足的感知,即便他们已经得到了来自上司的保证。 所以管理人员必须严格维持薪酬承诺。

Vroom认为,员工在其内心深处,已经将期望值、手段工具与效价三者建立起了关联性, 如此,就能产生一股向期望目标前进的激发力量,并带来愉悦,避免痛楚。 激发力量的大小可以通过公式来计算:


期望理论公式


Motivation = Valence x Expectancy(Instrumentality),即激发力量 = 效价 X 期望值(手段工具)


这一公式可以用来揭示、预测: 员工的工作满意程度、职业选择、工作可能、工作投入,等等。


期望理论论坛
  Can Perpetual Demotivation Be Reversed?
Demotivation is like the decomposition process, once it has started, the tale-tale signs remains in spite of whatever vigorous process of disinfecting.
Albeit with limited research, the thesis that it is difficult if not impossible to reverse th...
     
 
  Human Motivation Lies Within
A human can never be motivated. You can just push a bit and show a way. A person always needs to be self-motivated to perform best and be successful.

We as a company in HR spend a lot of effort on motivation programs and trai...
     
 
  Extended Version of the Expectancy Theory (Lambright)
Lambright (2010) addresses an important weakness of the expectancy theory: it makes no distinction between certainty and uncertainty conditions. Indeed, the expectancy theory does not take into account the cases in which there is uncertainty o...
     
 
  Creative Chaos is Conducive to Motivation
When one considers motivation in business organizational terms and politics, the first thing that comes to mind is monetary. Stick-and-carrot.
But taking a more holistic view, I believe motivation is a by-product of human nature liberated from t...
     
 
  Motivation is Owned by the Individual
Motivation is a slippery slope. I believe Wlodkowski who says: one cannot directly motivate another since motivation is owned by the individual; it comes from within us. It's the same as telling one to stop thinking abut sex. You have no control over...
     
 
  Measuring Motivation:The PIAV Assessment
When it comes to looking at the individual there is no substitute (personal bias here) for the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values (PIAV) assessment.
It is a validated tool (based on the work of Spranger) that ranks the six common motivator...
     
 
  Motivation Should be a Two-way Process
I think the motivation process between the manager and the employees is exchangeable, i.e. bosses should motivate their subordinates in various ways, but at the same time the subordinates should also motivate their bosses through spending a maximum e...
     
 
  Small Motivation Tips
I would be more interested in easy small things to get people motivated. Any ideas such as participating in some special interesting meeting or so. Let's try to collect many motivation tips and ideas. Thanks....
     
 
  Effort Leads to Performance
This is true in most cases, the more you put in the more you get out but there are times when this is not the case.
If you put in all of your effort you do perform better, but it is hard to see how someone can keep up such effort. The human mind...
     
 
  Motivating Workers: McGregors Example
I believe that success in motivating employees is well explained in McGregors example in which, to the question: "What are you doing?", three workers answered differently.
- The first one says, I'm breaking stones.
- The seco...
     
 
  Misunderstandings About Motivation
Motivation is found to be hard by many people but I would like to put across that:
1. Motivation can be done even without financial benefits. Take an example of a thank you from your boss, a pat on the back, a recognition letter, a hand s...
     
 
  Expectancy versus Needs?
There are many different ways to reach goals, but I believe that the NEEDS have more weight than the EXPECTANCY. So what about Maslow thinking of human behavior?...
     
 
  Applications of the Expectancy Theory
This is a very good summary of Expectancy Theory, but I 'd like to know the applications of it in budgeting and planning, and in the implementation of the balanced scorecard or any other valuable applications in HR & performance management. Thanks....
     
 
  Problems with Expectancy Theory. Disadvantages
A problem with Expectancy Theory is that it breaks down if employee does not believe in the motivation or reward. Then other leadership or motivation skills are needed as well as the use of other theories....
     
 
  How to Align Vroom's Theory with Psychological Contract in Disengaged Employees?
Has anyone/organisation successfully achieved meaningful employee motivation applying the Vroom formula in appraisal systems and still addressing psychological contract theory to disengaged employees (mostly manifested through grandpare...
     
 
  Satisfaction from Achieving Goals
Satisfaction will usually stem from achievement of goals. Naturally, any employee who believes that his needs have been or will be met, would put in more efforts....
     
 
  What Precisely is Valence? Definition of Valence
Hi, for me it's hard to understand "valence"? It's not in my English dictionary. Can you give me some help?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 期望理论 高级帐户
  What Motivates Employees? The Answer Depends (Partly) on their Generation
The age of retirement has been moved to 60, 65, 70 years and beyond. Where each generation used to pass the baton; there is no baton being passed anymore.
We can now find multiple generations (up to 4!) working in the workplace together. ...
     
 
  How Can You Motivate Knowledge Workers?
In the current 'knowledge era', the question what motivates knowledge workers, and, being a manager, how you should motivate and manage them is important.
In their article "The Progress of Small Wins" in HBR May 2011, Professor Theresa M...
     
 
  Controlling the Minds of Employees
I think there can be several way to achieve goals, however what's more important is to have control over the mind of the team members. And that's up to the managers how they carry their team....
     
 
  Motivation in Non-Profit Organizations
I'm having difficulties finding a theory to help me research motivation, and the importance of it, in a non-profit organization. Could someone please give me some advice for the best possible theory? Thanks so much!...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Expectancy Theory 高级帐户
 

4 Steps to Motivate your Employees...

As a manager, you can motivate your employees applying Expectancy Theory. Take these 4 steps:
1. Find out what each indvidual employee wants / va...
Usage (application)Using Expectancy Theory in your Department / Group
 
 
 

It's All About Perceptions!

Note that what matters in expectancy theory are the perceptions of the person who is to be motivated, not the reality of the situ...
Usage (application)Implementing Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

Expectancy can be Unexpected!

Be careful with assuming what the expectancy of a person (employee) is going to be:
Zakary Tormala did research on how people react on other peop...
Usage (application)On Experts and Surprises
 
 
 

Relationships in Expectancy Theory

The Expectancy theory focuses on three relationships:
1. Effort<>Performance relationship. The probability perceived by the individual that exer...
Usage (application)Understanding / Teaching Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

The Effort -> Performance Relationship

As mentioned in the summary, one of the expectations of Vrooms theory is the positive relationship between effort and performance. Porter and Lawler ...
Usage (application)Coaching, mentoring
 
 
 

Reasons Why People are Doing Voluntary Work

Voluntary work has long been seen as an activity performed mainly by unemployed individuals mostly women, both in their youth and retired - because t...
Usage (application)Expectancy Theory, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Perspective, Volunteers
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
...
Usage (application)Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application)Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 

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