Förväntansteori
(Vroom)

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En anställds prestation baseras på individuella faktorer. Förklaring till Förväntansteori (Expectancy Theory) av Victor Vroom. ('64)

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Expectancy Theory (Förväntansteori)

Vad är Förväntansteori/Expectancy Theory? Beskrivning

Förväntansteori av Victor Vroom handlar om motivation och styrning. Vroomsteorin antar att beteende är ett resultatet utifrån medvetna val bland de alternativ som finns. Syftet med valen är att maximera nöje och minimera smärta. Tillsammans med Edward Lawler och Lyman Porter, så föreslog Vroom att förhållandet mellan personens beteende på arbetet och deras målsättningar inte var så enkelt, som först föreställts av andra forskare. Vroom insåg att en anställds prestation baseras på individuella faktorer liksom personlighet, kunskaper, vetskap, erfarenhet och förmågor.


Förväntansteori talar om att individer har olika sorters mål och kan motiveras om de har bestämda förväntningar som kan uppnås.


Förväntansteorins förväntningar

  • Det finns en positiv korrelation mellan ansträngningar och prestation,
  • Förväntad prestation kommer att resultera i en önskvärd belöning,
  • Belöning kommer att tillfredsställa ett viktigt behov,
  • Lusten att tillfredsställa behovet är starkt nog till att göra ansträngningen meningsfull.

Vroom Förväntansteori baseras på följande tre övertygelser.


Förväntansteori övertygelser

  1. Bindning (Valens). Refererar till de emotionella riktningar som personer intar med hänsyn till resultat [belöningar]. Djupet av önskan hos en anställd till yttre- [pengar, befordran, fritid, fördelar], eller inre [tillfredsställelse] belöningar. Ledningen måste upptäcka vad de anställda uppskattar mest.

  2. Förväntan. Anställda har olika förväntningar och nivåer av förtroende för vad de är kapabla till att göra. Ledningen måste upptäcka vilka resurser, utbildning eller tillsyn de anställda behöver.

  3. Medverkan. Uppfattningen hos de anställda, huruvida de kommer att få det som de faktiskt önskar sig, även om det har utlovats av en chef. Ledningen måste se till att löften och belöningar fullgörs och att de anställda är medvetna om det.

Vroom föreslår att en anställds tilltro omkring Förväntan, Medverkan och Valens samspelar psykologiskt. På detta sätt skapar de en motivationsstyrka som är sådan att en anställd kommer att agera på det sätt som kommer att skapa glädje och att undvika smärta. Denna styrka kan ”beräknas” via en formel:


Förväntansteoriformeln


Motivation = Bindning x Förväntan (Medverkan).


Denna formeln kan användas till att indikera och kunna förutsäga saker som: jobbtillfredsställelse, val av sysselsättning, sannolikheten till att bli kvar i ett jobb och den ansträngning som någon kommer att satsa på sitt arbete.


Förväntansteori Forumet
  Can Perpetual Demotivation Be Reversed?
Demotivation is like the decomposition process, once it has started, the tale-tale signs remains in spite of whatever vigorous process of disinfecting.
Albeit with limited research, the thesis that it is difficult if not impossible to reverse th...
     
 
  Human Motivation Lies Within
A human can never be motivated. You can just push a bit and show a way. A person always needs to be self-motivated to perform best and be successful.

We as a company in HR spend a lot of effort on motivation programs and trai...
     
 
  Extended Version of the Expectancy Theory (Lambright)
Lambright (2010) addresses an important weakness of the expectancy theory: it makes no distinction between certainty and uncertainty conditions. Indeed, the expectancy theory does not take into account the cases in which there is uncertainty o...
     
 
  Creative Chaos is Conducive to Motivation
When one considers motivation in business organizational terms and politics, the first thing that comes to mind is monetary. Stick-and-carrot.
But taking a more holistic view, I believe motivation is a by-product of human nature liberated from t...
     
 
  Motivation is Owned by the Individual
Motivation is a slippery slope. I believe Wlodkowski who says: one cannot directly motivate another since motivation is owned by the individual; it comes from within us. It's the same as telling one to stop thinking abut sex. You have no control over...
     
 
  Measuring Motivation:The PIAV Assessment
When it comes to looking at the individual there is no substitute (personal bias here) for the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values (PIAV) assessment.
It is a validated tool (based on the work of Spranger) that ranks the six common motivator...
     
 
  Motivation Should be a Two-way Process
I think the motivation process between the manager and the employees is exchangeable, i.e. bosses should motivate their subordinates in various ways, but at the same time the subordinates should also motivate their bosses through spending a maximum e...
     
 
  Small Motivation Tips
I would be more interested in easy small things to get people motivated. Any ideas such as participating in some special interesting meeting or so. Let's try to collect many motivation tips and ideas. Thanks....
     
 
  Effort Leads to Performance
This is true in most cases, the more you put in the more you get out but there are times when this is not the case.
If you put in all of your effort you do perform better, but it is hard to see how someone can keep up such effort. The human mind...
     
 
  Motivating Workers: McGregor´s Example
I believe that success in motivating employees is well explained in McGregor´s example in which, to the question: "What are you doing?", three workers answered differently.
- The first one says, I'm breaking stones.
- The seco...
     
 
  Misunderstandings About Motivation
Motivation is found to be hard by many people but I would like to put across that:
1. Motivation can be done even without financial benefits. Take an example of a thank you from your boss, a pat on the back, a recognition letter, a hand s...
     
 
  Expectancy versus Needs?
There are many different ways to reach goals, but I believe that the NEEDS have more weight than the EXPECTANCY. So what about Maslow thinking of human behavior?...
     
 
  Applications of the Expectancy Theory
This is a very good summary of Expectancy Theory, but I 'd like to know the applications of it in budgeting and planning, and in the implementation of the balanced scorecard or any other valuable applications in HR & performance management. Thanks....
     
 
  Problems with Expectancy Theory. Disadvantages
A problem with Expectancy Theory is that it breaks down if employee does not believe in the motivation or reward. Then other leadership or motivation skills are needed as well as the use of other theories....
     
 
  How to Align Vroom's Theory with Psychological Contract in Disengaged Employees?
Has anyone/organisation successfully achieved meaningful employee motivation applying the Vroom formula in appraisal systems and still addressing psychological contract theory to disengaged employees (mostly manifested through grandpare...
     
 
  Satisfaction from Achieving Goals
Satisfaction will usually stem from achievement of goals. Naturally, any employee who believes that his needs have been or will be met, would put in more efforts....
     
 
  What Precisely is Valence? Definition of Valence
Hi, for me it's hard to understand "valence"? It's not in my English dictionary. Can you give me some help?...
     
 

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Best Practices - Förväntansteori Premium
  What Motivates Employees? The Answer Depends (Partly) on their Generation
The age of retirement has been moved to 60, 65, 70 years and beyond. Where each generation used to pass the baton; there is no baton being passed anymore.
We can now find multiple generations (up to 4!) working in the workplace together. ...
     
 
  How Can You Motivate Knowledge Workers?
In the current 'knowledge era', the question what motivates knowledge workers, and, being a manager, how you should motivate and manage them is important.
In their article "The Progress of Small Wins" in HBR May 2011, Professor Theresa M...
     
 
  Controlling the Minds of Employees
I think there can be several way to achieve goals, however what's more important is to have control over the mind of the team members. And that's up to the managers how they carry their team....
     
 
  Motivation in Non-Profit Organizations
I'm having difficulties finding a theory to help me research motivation, and the importance of it, in a non-profit organization. Could someone please give me some advice for the best possible theory? Thanks so much!...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Expectancy Theory Premium
 

4 Steps to Motivate your Employees...

As a manager, you can motivate your employees applying Expectancy Theory. Take these 4 steps:
1. Find out what each indvidual employee wants / va...
Usage (application): Using Expectancy Theory in your Department / Group
 
 
 

It's All About Perceptions!

Note that what matters in expectancy theory are the perceptions of the person who is to be motivated, not the reality of the situ...
Usage (application): Implementing Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

Expectancy can be Unexpected!

Be careful with assuming what the expectancy of a person (employee) is going to be:
Zakary Tormala did research on how people react on other peop...
Usage (application): On Experts and Surprises
 
 
 

Relationships in Expectancy Theory

The Expectancy theory focuses on three relationships:
1. Effort<>Performance relationship. The probability perceived by the individual that exer...
Usage (application): Understanding / Teaching Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

The Effort -> Performance Relationship

As mentioned in the summary, one of the expectations of Vroom’s theory is the positive relationship between effort and performance. Porter and Lawler ...
Usage (application): Coaching, mentoring
 
 
 

Reasons Why People are Doing Voluntary Work

Voluntary work has long been seen as an activity performed mainly by unemployed individuals –mostly women, both in their youth and retired - because t...
Usage (application): Expectancy Theory, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Perspective, Volunteers
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
...
Usage (application): Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 

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Jämför Förväntansteori på motivation med:   Behovshierarki av Maslow  |  Betjänanande Ledarskap  |  Behovsteorin (McClelland)  |  Hawthorne Effekten  |  Konkurrerande Värden Ramverk Quinn  |  Attributionsteori  |  Inramning, Framing (Tversky)  |  Tvåfaktorsteorin Hertzberg   |  Teori X Teori Y  |  Ledningsmatris  |  ERG Teori Alderfer  |  Ledarskapets Övergångsmodell Tannenbaum och Schmidt  |  Målvägsteori (Path-Goal Theori) House  |  Ledarskapsstilar, Ledarstilar  |  Situationsanpassat Ledarskap  |  Afrikanskt Ledarskapsmodell av Banhegyi   |  Coaching, Coachande, Coachning, Rådgivare  |  Mentoring (Mentorskap)


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