Expectancy Theory [기대 이론]
(Vroom)

지식 센터

   

직원의 성과는 개인적인 요인에 기초한다. Victor Vroom의 기대 이론의 설명. ('64)

목차

  1. 요약
  2. 포럼
  3. 모범 사례
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 자료
  6. 인쇄

기대 이론

기대 이론은 무엇인가? 기술

Victor Vroom의 기대 이론은 동기부여와 관리를 다룬다. Vroom의 이론은 행동은 여러 대안 중에서 의식적인 선택의 결과라고 가정한다. 선택의 목적은 기쁨을 극대화하고 고통을 극소화하기 위한 것이다. Edward Lawler와 Lyman Porter와 함께, Vroom은 직장에서 사람들의 행동과 목적사이의 관계는 다른 과학자들이 처음에 생각했던 것만큼 단순하지 않다고 한다. Vroom은 한 직원의 성과는 개성, 기술, 지식, 경험과 능력같은 개인적인 요인에 근거한다는 것을 알았다.


기대 이론에 의하면 개인들이 서로 다른 목표를 갖고 있고 특정한 기대를 갖고 있는 경우에 동기부여될 수 있다.


기대 이론의 기대

  • 노력과 성과 사이에는 긍정적인 상호관계가 있다,
  • 좋은 성과에는 바람직한 보상이 따를 것이다,
  • 보상은 중요한 욕구를 만족시킬 것이다,
  • 욕구를 만족시키려는 욕망은 노력을 기울일만큼 충분히 강하다.

Vroom의 기대 이론은 다음 3가지 신념에 기초한다.


기대 이론의 신념

  1. 유의성 (Valence). 사람들이 결과(보상)와 관련하여 갖고 있는 정서적인 지향을 가리킨다. 외적(돈, 승진, 자유시간, 혜택) 또는 내적(만족) 보상에 대한 직원의 욕구의 깊이. 경영진은 직원들이 생각하는 것을 찾아내야 한다.

  2. 기대 (Expectancy). 직원들은 자신들이 할 수 있는 것에 대하여 서로 다른 기대와 신뢰수준을 갖고 있다. 경영진은 직원들이 필요로 하는 자원, 교육 또는 관리감독 사항을 찾아내야 한다.

  3. 수단 (Instrumentality). 비록 매니저에 의해 약속되더라도, 원하는 무슨을 그들이 실제로 받을 것이라는 점을 직원의 지각. 경영진은 보상약속이 지켜지고, 직원들은 그러한 사실을 인식하고 있는 것을 확신해야 한다.

Vroom는 기대, 수단 및 유의성에 관한 직원의 신념은 심리적으로 상호작용한다고 한다. 이런식으로 그들은 동기적인 힘(motivational force)을 만들고, 직원들은 기쁨을 가져오고 고통을 피하는 방식으로 행동할 것이다. 이 힘은 다음 공식을 통해 계산될 수 있다 :


기대 이론 공식


동기부여 = 유인성 x 기대 (수단).


이 공식은 다음과 같은 것들을 나타내고 예측하는데 활용될 수 있다 : 직무만족, 직업선택, 이직예방 가능성, 업무에 쏟는 노력.


기대 이론 포럼
  Can Perpetual Demotivation Be Reversed?
Demotivation is like the decomposition process, once it has started, the tale-tale signs remains in spite of whatever vigorous process of disinfecting.
Albeit with limited research, the thesis that it is difficult if not impossible to reverse th...
     
 
  Human Motivation Lies Within
A human can never be motivated. You can just push a bit and show a way. A person always needs to be self-motivated to perform best and be successful.

We as a company in HR spend a lot of effort on motivation programs and trai...
     
 
  Extended Version of the Expectancy Theory (Lambright)
Lambright (2010) addresses an important weakness of the expectancy theory: it makes no distinction between certainty and uncertainty conditions. Indeed, the expectancy theory does not take into account the cases in which there is uncertainty o...
     
 
  Creative Chaos is Conducive to Motivation
When one considers motivation in business organizational terms and politics, the first thing that comes to mind is monetary. Stick-and-carrot.
But taking a more holistic view, I believe motivation is a by-product of human nature liberated from t...
     
 
  Motivation is Owned by the Individual
Motivation is a slippery slope. I believe Wlodkowski who says: one cannot directly motivate another since motivation is owned by the individual; it comes from within us. It's the same as telling one to stop thinking abut sex. You have no control over...
     
 
  Measuring Motivation:The PIAV Assessment
When it comes to looking at the individual there is no substitute (personal bias here) for the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values (PIAV) assessment.
It is a validated tool (based on the work of Spranger) that ranks the six common motivator...
     
 
  Motivation Should be a Two-way Process
I think the motivation process between the manager and the employees is exchangeable, i.e. bosses should motivate their subordinates in various ways, but at the same time the subordinates should also motivate their bosses through spending a maximum e...
     
 
  Small Motivation Tips
I would be more interested in easy small things to get people motivated. Any ideas such as participating in some special interesting meeting or so. Let's try to collect many motivation tips and ideas. Thanks....
     
 
  Effort Leads to Performance
This is true in most cases, the more you put in the more you get out but there are times when this is not the case.
If you put in all of your effort you do perform better, but it is hard to see how someone can keep up such effort. The human mind...
     
 
  Motivating Workers: McGregors Example
I believe that success in motivating employees is well explained in McGregors example in which, to the question: "What are you doing?", three workers answered differently.
- The first one says, I'm breaking stones.
- The seco...
     
 
  Misunderstandings About Motivation
Motivation is found to be hard by many people but I would like to put across that:
1. Motivation can be done even without financial benefits. Take an example of a thank you from your boss, a pat on the back, a recognition letter, a hand s...
     
 
  Expectancy versus Needs?
There are many different ways to reach goals, but I believe that the NEEDS have more weight than the EXPECTANCY. So what about Maslow thinking of human behavior?...
     
 
  Applications of the Expectancy Theory
This is a very good summary of Expectancy Theory, but I 'd like to know the applications of it in budgeting and planning, and in the implementation of the balanced scorecard or any other valuable applications in HR & performance management. Thanks....
     
 
  Problems with Expectancy Theory. Disadvantages
A problem with Expectancy Theory is that it breaks down if employee does not believe in the motivation or reward. Then other leadership or motivation skills are needed as well as the use of other theories....
     
 
  How to Align Vroom's Theory with Psychological Contract in Disengaged Employees?
Has anyone/organisation successfully achieved meaningful employee motivation applying the Vroom formula in appraisal systems and still addressing psychological contract theory to disengaged employees (mostly manifested through grandpare...
     
 
  Satisfaction from Achieving Goals
Satisfaction will usually stem from achievement of goals. Naturally, any employee who believes that his needs have been or will be met, would put in more efforts....
     
 
  What Precisely is Valence? Definition of Valence
Hi, for me it's hard to understand "valence"? It's not in my English dictionary. Can you give me some help?...
     
 

기대 이론 시그(SIG)


시그(SIG)

기대 이론 교육 및 이벤트


교육, 세미나 및 이벤트 찾기


모범 사례 - 기대 이론 프리미엄
  What Motivates Employees? The Answer Depends (Partly) on their Generation
The age of retirement has been moved to 60, 65, 70 years and beyond. Where each generation used to pass the baton; there is no baton being passed anymore.
We can now find multiple generations (up to 4!) working in the workplace together. ...
     
 
  How Can You Motivate Knowledge Workers?
In the current 'knowledge era', the question what motivates knowledge workers, and, being a manager, how you should motivate and manage them is important.
In their article "The Progress of Small Wins" in HBR May 2011, Professor Theresa M...
     
 
  Controlling the Minds of Employees
I think there can be several way to achieve goals, however what's more important is to have control over the mind of the team members. And that's up to the managers how they carry their team....
     
 
  Motivation in Non-Profit Organizations
I'm having difficulties finding a theory to help me research motivation, and the importance of it, in a non-profit organization. Could someone please give me some advice for the best possible theory? Thanks so much!...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Expectancy Theory 프리미엄
 

4 Steps to Motivate your Employees...

As a manager, you can motivate your employees applying Expectancy Theory. Take these 4 steps:
1. Find out what each indvidual employee wants / va...
Usage (application) : Using Expectancy Theory in your Department / Group
 
 
 

It's All About Perceptions!

Note that what matters in expectancy theory are the perceptions of the person who is to be motivated, not the reality of the situ...
Usage (application) : Implementing Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

Expectancy can be Unexpected!

Be careful with assuming what the expectancy of a person (employee) is going to be:
Zakary Tormala did research on how people react on other peop...
Usage (application) : On Experts and Surprises
 
 
 

Relationships in Expectancy Theory

The Expectancy theory focuses on three relationships:
1. Effort<>Performance relationship. The probability perceived by the individual that exer...
Usage (application) : Understanding / Teaching Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

The Effort -> Performance Relationship

As mentioned in the summary, one of the expectations of Vrooms theory is the positive relationship between effort and performance. Porter and Lawler ...
Usage (application) : Coaching, mentoring
 
 
 

Reasons Why People are Doing Voluntary Work

Voluntary work has long been seen as an activity performed mainly by unemployed individuals mostly women, both in their youth and retired - because t...
Usage (application) : Expectancy Theory, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Perspective, Volunteers
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
...
Usage (application) : Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application) : Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 

자료 - 기대 이론 프리미엄
 

뉴스

기대 이론
     
 

뉴스

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영화

기대 이론
     
 

영화

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프리젠 테이션

기대 이론
     
 

프리젠 테이션

기대 이론
     
 

기대 이론
     
 

기대 이론
     

동기부여에 관한 기대이론 관련개념 :  Hierarchy of Needs [욕구계층이론]  |  서번트 리더십  |  필요의 이론  |  Hawthoren Effect [호손 효과]  |  Competing Values Framework [경쟁가치모형]  |  Attribution Theory[속성 이론]  |  Framing [프레이밍]  |  Two Factor Theory [2 요인 이론] Herzberg   |  X이론 Y이론  |  Managerial Grid [관리망]  |  ERG 이론   |  Leadership Continuum [리더십 차원]  |  Path-Goal Theory [경로-목표 이론]  |  리더십 형태  |  Situational Leadership [상황대응 리더십]  |  EPIC ADVISERS 리더십모델  |  Coaching [코칭]  |  Mentoring [멘토링]


다른 페이지로 이동: Change & Organization [변화와 조직]  |  인적 자원  |  리더십


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Copyright 2016 12manage - 경영 이러닝 커뮤니티. V14.1 - 마지막 업데이트: 27-9-2016. 모든 상표권은 소유자에게 있습니다.