Value Stream Mapping[VSM,价值流程图]

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辨识和减少生产制造过程中的浪费。 Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]解析。Ohno & Shingo('91)、 Jones ('95)、 Hines & Rich (‘97)

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 Value Stream Mapping[VSM,价值流程图]

什么是价值流程图? 释义

价值流程图(Value Stream MappingVSM)是丰田精实制造(Learn Manufacturing)生产系统框架下的一种用来描述物流和信息流的形象化工具。 它运用精实制造的工具和技术来帮助企业理解和精简生产流程。 价值流程图的目的是为了辨识和减少生产过程中的浪费。 浪费在这里被定义为不能够为终端产品提供增值的任何活动, 并经常用于说明生产过程中所减少的“浪费”总量。 VSM可以作为管理人员、工程师、生产制造人员、流程规划人员、供应商以及顾客发现浪费、寻找浪费根源的起点。 从这点来说,VSM还是一项沟通工具。但是,VSM往往被用作战略工具变革管理工具


VSM通过形象化地描述生产过程中的物流和信息流,来达到上述工具目的。 从原材料购进的那一刻起,VSM就开始工作了, 它贯穿于生产制造的所有流程、步骤, 直到终端产品离开仓储。

对生产制造过程中的周期时间、当机时间、在制品库存、原材料流动、信息流动等情况进行描摹和记录,有助于形象化当前流程的活动状态,并有利于对生产流程进行指导,朝向理想化方向发展。

VSM通常包括对“当前状态”和“未来状态”两个状态的描摹, 从而作为精实制造战略的基础。
 

价值流程图的历史

1980年代,丰田公司的首席工程师Taiichi Ohno与sensei Shigeo Shingo率先运用去处生产浪费的方法来获取竞争优势,他们的主要出发点是提高生产效率,而非提高产品质量。 之所以这么做,是因为他们认为生产效率的提高将有助于精实制造,从而能够暴露出系统中的深层的浪费问题和质量问题。 因此,对浪费问题发起的系统性攻击也就是对质量问题的深层原因展开攻击, 对根本性的管理问题展开攻击。 丰田生产系统中认定的七种常见浪费(括号中内容为Jones的表述):

  1. 生产过剩(快于必要的速度);

  2. 等待;

  3. 运输(搬运);

  4. 不当流程;

  5. 不必要的库存(超出的库存);

  6. 不必要的行动;

  7. 次品(改正错误)。

Peter Hines和Nick Rich则对如何具体运用价值流程图,给出了以下一些具体建议: (《价值流程图的七种工具》,《国际运营与生产管理期刊》17卷1册,1997, 46-64.)。


价值流程图的七种工具

  1. 流程活动图(Process Activity Mapping)。 起源: 工业工程。

  2. 供应链反应矩阵(Supply Chain Response Matrix)。 起源: 时间加速与后勤学。

  3. 生产多样性漏斗(Production Variety Funnel)。 起源: 运营管理。

  4. 质量过滤图(Quality Filter Mapping)。

  5. 需求扩大图(Demand Amplification Mapping)。 起源: 系统动力学。

  6. 决策点分析(Decision Point Analysis)。 起源: 有效消费者反应/物流学。

  7. 物理结构图(Physical Structure Mapping)。


价值流程图论坛
  Value Stream Mapping in Cement Plants
Since 2 years I have had some experience of carrying out VSM in Cement Plants.
The Methodology for the VSM is defined by me, based on the type of Industry. The variable cost of cement manufacturing (per T-Cement) is considered as a single parame...
     
 
  Value Stream for Design Engineering and PMI
Hi everyone, I use a value stream process for design engineering that also works in conjunction with PMI's project management principles.
For those who aren't familiar with these principles, they incorporate ...
     
 
  Value Stream Management in IT Services
Hi, I'm currently looking in to the "cost and benefits" of implementing value stream management in a global IT function.
We have gone through a period of cost cutting and have further needs to reduce cost. Hence value stream management seems lik...
     
 
  Changes in Behavior in Value Stream Mapping
Note that the realization of the action plan in VSM typically requires changes in activities and processes, but may also require changes in behavior....
     
 
  Value Stream Mapping Software
In what way will a software program help with value stream mapping? What are the criteria of selecting the most suitable software program.
Please provide help in getting answers to these problem....
     
 
  Defining Value Stream Mapping Areas
I am in process of implementing "value stream mapping" as a tool to serve industries. I am facing constraints in the implementation.
After documenting the process under review and charting the present value stream, what is the process to identif...
     
 
  Mappping Outsourced Activities in Value Stream Mapping
Hi everybody, I would need an advice concerning the mapping of an outsourced activity in the production of one company where I'm working on my thesis. I haven't found any information about how to map the value stream when the production isn't ...
     
 
  Value Stream Mapping Plan Example
I need to compare a VSM plan example. Please share a case if you can....
     
 
  4 Value Stream Mapping Phases
The 4 Phases in VSM are:
1. Current State Map of material flow and activities
2. Future State Map
3. Action Plan
4. Implementation...
     
 
  Value Stream Mapping Quotes
Challenge everything, assume nothing and continuously improve. Copyright Colin Holmes. This way, nothing is overlooked....
     
 
  Value Stream Mapping within Logistics Operations
I am currently in the process of mapping the supply chain within our facility. Having read both Value Stream Mapping (Tapping, Luyster & Shuker) and Learning to See (Rother & Shock) I should be focusing on a product family to assess the value and the...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 价值流程图 高级帐户
  Value Stream Mapping in a job shop
I am currently working in a company where I have been told to implement VSM. But the problem is that its manufacturing activities are like a job shop and there is no repeatability.. Is VSM possible in this environment??...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Value Stream Mapping 高级帐户
 

The Idea Behind Lean Value Stream Mapping

Basically VSM is done to map the set of operations, required for a product to launch from order to delivery to the market, considering both value-adde...
Usage (application)Teaching VSM
 
 
 

5 Lean Manufacturing Principles

In order to maximize value creation and to decrease waste, the Lean Enterprise Institute has identified five principles for organizations to fo...
Usage (application)Maximizing Value Creation and Decrease Waste
 
 

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比较:  Kaizen[改善]  |  Quality Function Deployment[质量功能展开]  |  Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]  |  Value Engineering[价值工程]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Organizational Learning[组织学习]  |  Business Process Simulation[商业流程仿真]  |  Strategy Dynamics[战略动力学]  |  Value Chain[价值链]  |  Just-in-time[即时生产]  |  Deming Cycle[戴明循环]  |  Six Sigma[六西格玛]  |  Outsourcing[外包]  |  RFID Technology[无线射频识别技术]


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