Framing (Tversky)

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Focus the attention within a field of meaning, using frames. Explanation of Framing of Tversky and Kahneman. ('81). Fairhurst and Sarr. ('96)


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Framing examplesWhat is Framing? Description

Using Framing techniques, we can focus the attention of people within a field of a meaning. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman should be seen as the founders of Framing theory, although Fairhurst and Sarr actually coined the term.

Unlike the central concept of the rational choice theory (people always strive to make the most rational choices possible), Framing theory suggests that how something is presented (the "frame"), influences the choices which people make.

Frames are abstract notions that serve to organize or structure social meanings. Frames influence the perception of the news by the audience. This form of agenda-setting not only tells what to think about an issue (agenda-setting theory), but also how to think about that issue.

Framing is a quality of communication that leads others to accept one meaning over another. It is the process by which a communication source can define and can construct a political issue or public controversy.

Understanding Framing is an important topic since it can have a big influence on the content of the thoughts of people. Try to test the examples on the right to see if you can withstand Framing...

Framing does not have to be a bad thing, and it is in fact an unavoidable part of human communication. We find it in the media as events are presented within a field of meaning. We find it in politics as politicians attempt to characterize events as one thing or another; we find it in religion, and we find it in negotiating when one side tries to move another towards a desired outcome. Finally it can also be used by leaders of organizations with profound effects on how organizational members understand and respond to the world in which they live. It is a skill that most successful leaders possess. It is a skill that is not often taught.

According to Fairhurst & Sarr (1996) Framing consists of three elements:

  1. Language
  2. Thought
  3. Forethought

Language helps us to remember information and serves to transform the way in which we view situations. To use language, people must have thought and reflected on their own interpretation frameworks and those of others. Leaders can and should learn Framing spontaneously in certain circumstances. Being able to do so, is related to having an insight in what the future will bring to predict Framing opportunities. In other words, leaders must make plans so that they can be spontaneous.

Framing Techniques (Fairhurst and Sarr, 1996)

  1. Metaphor. To give a new meaning to an idea or to a program by comparing it with something else.
  2. Stories (myths and legends). Framing a subject by telling an anecdote in a vivid and memorable way.
  3. Traditions (rites, rituals and ceremonies). Patterning and defining an organization at regular time increments to confirm and reproduce organizational values.
  4. Slogans, jargon and catchphrases. Framing a subject in a memorable and familiar fashion.
  5. Artifacts. Illuminating corporate values through physical objects (vestiges). Sometimes in a way language can not do.
  6. Contrast. To describe a subject in terms of what it not is.
  7. Spin. Talking about a concept so as to give it a positive or negative connotation.

Framing Forum
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  Terrorism Framing
The book "Framing Terrorism: The News Media, The Government a...
  Framing, Reframing and Gestalt Theory
Framing is of the essence in communication, generally.
And also in change theory as reframing the dominant paradigm is an element of the Unfreezing phase. A classic example of Reframing is Tom Sawyer's ability to get his village peers to shift t...
  Framing in Social Media
This technique must be a winner when using social media.
In short, the creative marketer can carry his / her message into the hearts of people who want to live fast and informed......
  Framing was Preceded by Theory of Bounded Rationality by Herbert Simon
Herbert Simon first introduced the concept "bounded rationality". Simon suggested that rational economic behavior is limited by the cognitive quality of man....
  Reframing Organizations
Reframing organizations is a new concept and and research is ongoing.. Bolman and Deal 1991 Reframing Organizations is one of the source of reframing....
  Founders of "Framing theory"?
In 1982 the book ReFraming (NLP - Neuro-Lingvistic Programming) was published by Richard Bandler and John Grinder....
  Framing by TV Journalists
Am I the only one who is getting sick of long, suggestive introductions and short, framing questions by journalists and media? In particular TV 'journalists' are extremely annoying, even from 'reputable stations', when they are starting an interview ...
  Nobel Price Economic Sciences Daniel Kahneman
In 2002, Daniel Kahneman of Priceton University was awarded the Nobel Price in Economic Sciences for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertai...

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Three Different Types of Framing and Their Effects

According to Levin et al. (1998), there are 3 different types of framing effects. These three types of Framing effects differ with regard to their res...
Usage (application): Framing, Communication, Advertising

Social Persuasion: Determining the Potential of Social Influencers

Which consumers are best able to influence others in social groups? What characteristics and what factors identify those consumers with the greates...
Usage (application): Social Media Marketing, Social Influence, Opinion Leadership

Framing Example: Martin Luther King: I have a dream...

Martin Luther King, Jr's "I have a dream" speech is an excellent example of Framing.
The speech largely shaped the civil rights movement.
Usage (application): Framing Example

Resources - Framing Premium

Nobel Price Kahneman

Lecture by Kahneman in which he tells about his work done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (19371996) during a long and unusually close collaborati...
Usage (application): Nobel lecture by Kahneman

Mediation as Framing

In this paper Barbara Gray explores two connections between mediation and framing. First, mediators use framing as a technique to foster resolution by...
Usage (application): Mediation, Dispute Intervention

Framing Approaches

While researchers have demonstrated that frames have profound effects on conflict and negotiation processes and outcomes, the extant research on frami...
Usage (application): Negotiation, Media

Heuristics and Biases

In this essay, Russell B. Korobkin and Chris Guthrie examine the role of heuristics in negotiation from two vantage points. First, they identify the w...
Usage (application): Negotiation

Framing in the Context of Conflicts

Framing and conflicts
This presentation elaborates on the extent to which framing relates to conflicts (and its resolution). The presentation inc...
Usage (application): Framing, Negotiation, Collective Bargaining, Stakeholder Analysis, Force Field Analysis, Conflict Management

Heuristics as Biases (defects) or Heuristics as Intelligence (beneficial)?

Presentation that mainly is about Heuristics as Biases and Heuristics as Intelligence, including the following sections:
0. Context
0.1 Rati...
Usage (application): Heuristics, Biases, Framing

Epistemological Analysis

The goal of this paper by Michael Hoffmann is to define framing as a basic form of knowledge. Starting point is a discussion of a variety of different...
Usage (application): Framing Overview

40 Proven Ways to Be Persuasive

Interesting presentation that describes 50 scientifically proven ways to be persuasive.
1. Six Universal Principles of Social Influence:
- R...
Usage (application): Persuasion Techniques, Persuasion Theory

Introduction Into Propaganda as Persuasion Technique

This presentation gives an introduction into Propaganda as a Persuasive Technique. The presentation includes various posters that are examples of prop...
Usage (application): Propaganda, Advertising, Persuasion

Agenda Setting and Framing by Media

Presentation about Agenda Setting and Framing by M. Ersoy. The presentation starts with explaining agenda setting by outlining is beginnings, its main...
Usage (application): Agenda Setting, Framing, Mass Media Influences

The Power of Analogies

The presentation starts with a comparison of well-defined and ill-defined problems, and after a slide about general problem-solving, an example of a w...
Usage (application): Reasoning, Problem Solving

Framing Diagram

Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in intranets, websites, books, ma...
Usage (application): Focusing Attention


Framing Communication


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Framing Communication


Framing Media


Framing Communication


Framing Media


Framing Communication


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Compare with Framing: Spiral of Silence  |  Competing Values Framework  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Attribution Theory  |  Leadership ContinuumEmotional Intelligence  |  Cultural Intelligence  |  Johari Window  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Two Factor Theory Herzberg  |  Core Group Theory  |  Theory of Planned Behavior  |  Groupthink  |  Spiral Dynamics

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