Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]
(Tuckman)

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辨识团队构建与发展的关键性因素。 Bruce Tuckman的Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]解析。 (‘65)

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Tuckman Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]

什么是团队发展阶段? 释义

Bruce Tuckman的团队发展阶段(Stages of Team Development)模型可以被用来辨识团队构建与发展的关键性因素,

并对团队的历史发展给以解释。 团队发展的五个阶段是: 组建期(Forming)、激荡期(Storming)、规范期(Norming)、执行期(Performing)和休整期(Adjourning)。 (休整期是在1977年后加入的。) 根据Tuckman,所有五个阶段都是必须的、不可逾越的,团队在成长、迎接挑战、处理问题、发现方案、规划、处置结果等一系列经历过程中必然要经过上述五个阶段。
 

团队发展阶段的起源。 历史

1965年,Bruce Tuckman 1938 -)发表了一篇短文,题为《小型团队的发展序列》(Developmental Sequence in Small Groups)。 1977年,他在1965年提出的四阶段中加入第五阶段: 休整期。 该模型对后来的组织发展理论产生了深远的影响,部分原因也许是它的分期比较押韵吧。


团队发展阶段的运用。 应用

  • 组建、发展团队。
  • 分析团队行为。

团队发展阶段。 流程

  1. 组建期。 项目小组启蒙阶段。
    • 项目团队酝酿,形成测试。 测试的目的是为了辨识团队的人际边界以及任务边界。 通过测试,建立起团队成员的相互关系、团队成员与团队领导之间的关系,以及各项团队标准等。
    • 团队成员行为具有相当大的独立性。 尽管他们有可能被促动,但普遍而言,这一时期他们缺乏团队目的、活动的相关信息。 部分团队成员还有可能表现出不稳定、忧虑的特征。
    • 团队领导在带领团队的过程中,要确保团队成员之间建立起一种互信的工作关系。 指挥或“告知”式领导。 与团队成员分享团队发展阶段的概念,达成共识。
  2. 激荡期。 形成各种观念,激烈竞争、碰撞的局面。
    • 项目团队获取团队发展的信心,但是存在人际冲突、分化的问题。
    • 团队成员面对其他成员的观点、见解,更想要展现个人性格特征。 对于团队目标、期望、角色以及责任的不满和挫折感被表露出来。
    • 项目领导指引项目团队度过激荡转型期。 教练式领导。 强调团队成员的差异,相互包容。
  3. 规范期。 规则,价值,行为,方法,工具均已建立。
    • 项目团队效能提高,团队开始形成自己的身份识别。
    • 团队成员调适自己的行为,以使得团队发展更加自然、流畅。 有意识地解决问题,实现组织和谐。 动机水平增加。
    • 团队领导允许团队有更大的自治性。 参与式领导。
  4. 执行期。 人际结构成为执行任务活动的工具, 团队角色更为灵活和功能化,团队能量积聚于一体。
    • 项目团队运作如一个整体。 工作顺利、高效完成,没有任何冲突,不需要外部监督。
    • 团队成员对于任务层面的工作职责有清晰的理解。 没有监督,自治,即便在没有监督的情况下自己也能做出决策。 随处可见“我能做”的积极工作态度。 互助协作。
    • 项目领导让团队自己执行必要的决策。 委任式领导。
  5. 休整期。 任务完成,团队解散。
    • 项目团队。 有些学者将第五阶段描述为“哀痛期”,反映了团队成员的一种失落感。
    • 团队成员动机水平下降,关于团队未来的不确定性开始回升。
    • 项目领导: 为了形成新的发展阶段,有必要介绍关于新项目的好点子。 分离式领导。

团队发展阶段的优势。 优点

  • 为团队发展提供阶段指导。

团队发展阶段的局限。 缺点

  • 该模型是用来描述小型团队的。
  • 实际上,团队发展轨迹不一定象Tuckman的描述是线形的,而有可能是循环式的。
  • 该模型描述的阶段特征并不可靠,因为它主要考量的是人的行为,而当团队从一个阶段跨向另一个阶段的时候,团队成员的行为特征变化并不明显。 它们也很有可能会发生交叠。
  • 模型没有考虑到团队成员的个人角色特征。 比较: Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]
  • 在阶段发展跨越上没有给出时间框架指导。 这是一个主客观相结合的模型。

团队发展阶段论坛
  How to Develop an Existing, Inherited Team (Watkins)
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But, are sport teams a perfect microcosm for teams in all other areas? Can leadership of sport teams be used as a model for all other task teams? Are organisational management pr...
     
 
  Team Building - How to Deal with Those Who Don't Want to Join
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  Dreyfus & Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition
According to brothers Stuart E. Dreyfus and Hubert L. Dreyfus (A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition, University of California, Berkely, February 1980) individuals move through 5 stages when acquiring skil...
     
 
  Team Development Stages are Culturally Bound
We have to consider the culture of the team; the stages of team development differ from one country to another....
     
 
  Team Development Stages are Unknown...
Not a lot of managers are aware of and can explain these stages. It's as if they think people should just come together and then should automatically know what to do and expect....
     
 
  Team Management Problem: BOOT Model
I face a very unique problem in my problem related to team management. It is like this: I am project manager of an e-governance project and working at site location. My present team of only developers is around 18 and most of them have been told that...
     
 
  Theories of Group Development
I am writing a paper on group management (laboratory), can I get help about theory related to this subject, and if possible comparing between 2 of them, advantages, disadvantages. What are the most popular theories in the field of group development a...
     
 
  Factors for Assembling Project Teams
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  Relationship between Team Development, Management Styles and Leadership Styles
What is the relationship between team development, management styles and leadership styles?...
     
 
  How to Deal with a Team that is Stuck?
I am interested in understanding how to move a project team forward from what I call being "stuck" - not sure about the way forward to becoming "unstuck" - getting clarity on the way ahead. Any suggestions as to team activities or process to break th...
     
 
  Diverse Team Building
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  Validity of Tuckman's model for Team Types
Is Tuckman's model valid across various types of small teams, such as:
1. Project teams,
2. Program teams,
3. Sport teams,
4. Work teams,
5. Management teams,
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最佳实践 - 团队发展阶段 高级帐户
  How to Create Team Spirit?
Who can give further input on how you can create team spirit? Thanks...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Stages of Team Development 高级帐户
 

COG's Ladder

A later, similar model (1972) is the one by a Procter and Gamble manager George O. Charrier who distinguishes an extra stage between forming and storm...
Usage (application)A similar 5 stages model
 
 
 

Developing Bold Teams

If you want your team to become a bold team, use these tactics:
- Give positive feedback, and help team members grow, change and do better...
Usage (application)Enforce Your Teams
 
 
 

Mobilize the Expertise in your Team Early On

In a short article, Bonner and Bolinger describe a surprisingly simple process to beef up the problem solving and/or decision-making capacity of your ...
Usage (application)Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
 
 
 

How to Determine in What Stage a Team is?

To identify each of the stages, the following stage characteristics could be useful:
FORMING:
1. Members are trying to define the task;
...
Usage (application)Characteristics of Stages of Teams
 
 
 

Do you really need a Team?

Don't forget to ask yourself the question BEFORE you start forming your team or project: Do I really need a team? Can not one highly skilled, knowledg...
Usage (application)Before Norming
 
 
 

The Role of Team Familiarity in Project Team Effectiveness

Although managers intuitively understand that team familiarity affects the way a team or group will perform, the power of team familiarity is underest...
Usage (application)Team Formation, Team Building, Project Management
 
 
 

Know Thyself

As Tuckman showed, a project manager needs different styles depending on the team stage. As a project manager, certain styles will be easier or more '...
Usage (application)Project Managers
 
 
 

Patience Pays Off

Perhaps the biggest lesson of Tuckman, especially for result-oriented project managers is to remember to plan and allow enough time for the first 3 ph...
Usage (application)Project Management
 
 

相关资料 - 团队发展阶段 高级帐户
 

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比较: Team Management Profile[团队管理剖面]  |  Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]  |  PMBOK[项目管理知识体系]  |  IPMA Competence Baseline[ICB,国际项目管理专业资质标准]  |  PAEI[PAEI管理角色]  |  Action Learning[行动学习法]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Johari Window[乔哈里资讯窗]


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