Stages of Team Development
(Tuckman)

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Identifying factors that are critical for building and developing teams. Explanation of the Stages of Team Development of Bruce Tuckman. ('65)

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Tuckman Stages of Team Development

What are the Stages of Team Development? Description

The Tuckman Stages of Team Development can be used for identifying factors that are critical for building and developing small groups.

Tuckman's Stages of Team Development model seeks to explain how a team develops over time. The five stages of development are: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. The Adjourning stage was added later in 1977. According to Tuckman, all of the phases are necessary and inevitable - in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results.
 

Origin of the Stages of Team Development. History

Bruce Wayne Tuckman (1938- ) published in 1965 a short article "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups". In 1977, he added the fifth stage: Adjourning (Stages of Small Group Development Revisited). The model of group became influential in group development theory, partly thanks to its rhyme.


Usage of Tuckman's Stages of Team Development. Applications

  • Build and develop teams.
  • Analyze the behavior of teams.

the Stages of Team Development. Process

  1. Forming. Project team initiation phase.
    • Project Team is initially concerned with orientation, accomplished primarily through testing. Such testing serves to identify the boundaries of both interpersonal and task behaviors. Coincident with testing in the interpersonal realm is the establishment of dependency relationships with leaders, other group members, or pre‑existing standards.
    • Team Members behave quite independently. They may be motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. Some team members may display traits of uncertainty and anxiety.
    • Project Manager must bring the team together, ensuring that they trust each other and have the ability to develop a working relationship. Directing or "telling" style. Sharing the concept of "Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing" with the team can be helpful.
  2. Storming. Various ideas compete, often fiercely, for consideration.
    • Project Team gains confidence, but there is conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues
    • Team Members are showing their own personalities as they confront each other's ideas and perspectives. Frustration or disagreements about goals, expectations, roles and responsibilities is being expressed openly.
    • Project Manager guides the project team through this turbulent transition phase. Coaching style. Tolerance of each team member and their differences needs to be emphasized.
  3. Norming. Rules, values, behavior, methods, tools are being established.
    • Project Team effectiveness increases and the team starts to develop an identity.
    • Team Members adjust their behavior to each other as they develop agreements to make the teamwork more natural and fluid. Conscious effort to resolve problems and to achieve group harmony. Motivation levels are increasing.
    • Project Manager allows the team to become much more autonomous. Participative style.
  4. Performing. The interpersonal structure becomes the tool of task activities. Roles become flexible and functional, and group energy is channeled into the task.
    • Project Team is now able to function as a unit. It gets the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision.
    • Team Members have a clear understanding of what is required of them at a task level. They are now competent, autonomous and able to handle the decision-making process without supervision. A "can do" attitude is visible. Offers to assist one another are made.
    • Project Manager lets the team make most of the necessary decisions. Delegating style.
  5. Adjourning. The tasks are being completed and the team is disassembled.
    • Project Team. Some authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and Mourning", recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members.
    • Team Members' motivation levels can decline as uncertainty about the future begins to set in.
    • Project Manager: Good point to introduce new projects in order to recommence the forming stage of team development. Detaching style.

Strengths of the Stages of Team Development model. Benefits

  • Provides a level of guidance for team development.

Limitations of the Stages of Team Development framework. Disadvantages

  • Note that the model was designed to describe stages in small groups.
  • In reality, group processes may not be as linear as Tuckman describes them, but rather cyclical.
  • Characteristics for each stage are not set in stone, and as the model deals with human behavior, it is sometimes unclear when a team has moved from one stage to another. There may be overlap between the stages.
  • The model does not take account of the individual roles that team members will have to undertake. Compare: Belbin Team Roles
  • There is no guidance on the timeframe for moving from one stage to another. This is a subjective as opposed to an objective model.

Stages of Team Development Forum
  What Features Set Sport Teams Apart from Organizational Teams?
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But, are sport teams a perfect microcosm for teams in all other areas? Can leadership of sport teams be used as a model for all other task teams? Are organisational management pr...
     
 
  Team Building - How to Deal with Those Who Don't Want to Join
Hi, I am heading a learning center with 60 staff. As part of a transformation process, we plan to have a team building exercise 500 km away from the office. However 25% of the staff ~ mostly ladies ~ have sent in letters saying they are not going. I ...
     
 
  Dreyfus & Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition
According to brothers Stuart E. Dreyfus and Hubert L. Dreyfus (A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition, University of California, Berkely, February 1980) individuals move through 5 stages when acquiring skil...
     
 
  Team Development Stages are Culturally Bound
We have to consider the culture of the team; the stages of team development differ from one country to another....
     
 
  Team Development Stages are Unknown...
Not a lot of managers are aware of and can explain these stages. It's as if they think people should just come together and then should automatically know what to do and expect....
     
 
  Team Management Problem: BOOT Model
I face a very unique problem in my problem related to team management. It is like this: I am project manager of an e-governance project and working at site location. My present team of only developers is around 18 and most of them have been told that...
     
 
  Theories of Group Development
I am writing a paper on group management (laboratory), can I get help about theory related to this subject, and if possible comparing between 2 of them, advantages, disadvantages. What are the most popular theories in the field of group development a...
     
 
  Factors for Assembling Project Teams
Could anyone suggest some ideas around the sort of factors that both an organisation and project manager would consider when assembling a project team? Thanks......
     
 
  Relationship between Team Development, Management Styles and Leadership Styles
What is the relationship between team development, management styles and leadership styles?...
     
 
  How to Deal with a Team that is Stuck?
I am interested in understanding how to move a project team forward from what I call being "stuck" - not sure about the way forward to becoming "unstuck" - getting clarity on the way ahead. Any suggestions as to team activities or process to break th...
     
 
  Diverse Team Building
DIVERSE (cross-functional, multidisciplinary, multicultural) TEAMS can be very creative and perform extraordinary well. At the same time, achieving a fit or “interpersonal congruence” among ...
     
 
  Validity of Tuckman's model for Team Types
Is Tuckman's model valid across various types of small teams, such as:
1. Project teams,
2. Program teams,
3. Sport teams,
4. Work teams,
5. Management teams,
6. Virtual (Internet-based) Teams....
     
 

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Best Practices - Stages of Team Development Premium
  How to Create Team Spirit?
Who can give further input on how you can create team spirit? Thanks...
     
 

Expert Tips - Stages of Team Development Premium
 

COG's Ladder

A later, similar model (1972) is the one by a Procter and Gamble manager George O. Charrier who distinguishes an extra stage between forming and storm...
Usage (application): A similar 5 stages model
 
 
 

Developing Bold Teams

If you want your team to become a bold team, use these tactics:
- Give positive feedback, and help team members grow, change and do better...
Usage (application): Enforce Your Teams
 
 
 

Mobilize the Expertise in your Team Early On

In a short article, Bonner and Bolinger describe a surprisingly simple process to beef up the problem solving and/or decision-making capacity of your ...
Usage (application): Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
 
 
 

How to Determine in What Stage a Team is?

To identify each of the stages, the following stage characteristics could be useful:
FORMING:
1. Members are trying to define the task;
...
Usage (application): Characteristics of Stages of Teams
 
 
 

Do you really need a Team?

Don't forget to ask yourself the question BEFORE you start forming your team or project: Do I really need a team? Can not one highly skilled, knowledg...
Usage (application): Before Norming
 
 
 

The Role of Team Familiarity in Project Team Effectiveness

Although managers intuitively understand that team familiarity affects the way a team or group will perform, the power of team familiarity is underest...
Usage (application): Team Formation, Team Building, Project Management
 
 
 

Know Thyself

As Tuckman showed, a project manager needs different styles depending on the team stage. As a project manager, certain styles will be easier or more '...
Usage (application): Project Managers
 
 
 

Patience Pays Off

Perhaps the biggest lesson of Tuckman, especially for result-oriented project managers is to remember to plan and allow enough time for the first 3 ph...
Usage (application): Project Management
 
 

Resources - Stages of Team Development Premium

Team Building

Positive, energetic presentation with breakout sessions on team building by N. Shrivastava. Topics:
What is a Team? Advantages of having a happy ...
Usage (application): Motivating a Team
 

Team Building Introduction

Generic presentation on Team Building with some good graphics. Topics: Group vs Team, How to create synergy? Benefits of Team Building - to employees ...
Usage (application): Groups or Team?
 

Drivers of Team Performance

The investigation of drivers of team performance has become the main issue of numerous publications in the last decades. Researchers of different disc...
Usage (application): Literature Overview
 

Team Building Tips

Short document with some good tips to remember when you're building or working with teams....
Usage (application): Team Development
 

Introduction to Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development

This presentation provides a brief and coherent outline of Tuckman’s Stages of Development. It includes the following sections:
1. How teams deve...
Usage (application): Team Development Stages, Group Formation, Tuckman
 

Introduction and Summary of Tuckman Stages of Team Development

Short introduction video explaining Tuckman's 5 stages of team development:
1. FORMING - Group is meeting and getting to know each-other.
2....
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Tuckman Stages, Trainings, Workshops
 

Employee Empowerment, Teamwork and Communication

Colorful presentation with speaking notes about 3 tools to improve organizational performance: Teamwork, Communication and Empowerment. The presentati...
Usage (application): Performance Management, Employee Empowerment
 

Lencioni explains the 5 Dysfunctions of Teams

Patrick Lencioni explains his pyramid of the 5 dysfunctions of a team:
1. Absence of Trust - When team members are not comfortable with being vul...
Usage (application): Analyzing Effectiveness of (management) teams, Lencioni, 5 Dysfunctions, Team Building
 

The Basics of Team Development, Team Building and Teamwork

This presentation elaborates on the concept of team work. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. What is teamwork and teambuilding?...
Usage (application): Team Building, Team Development
 

Leadership Styles and Team Cohesiveness Across Cultures

The goal of this study by Hein Wendt, Martin Euwema and Olena Zhytnyk is to clarify relationships between directive and supportive leadership styles a...
Usage (application): Leadership, National Culture, Team Cohesiveness
 

Group Decision Making: Using Team Conflict to Drive Performance

Mark de Rond of Judge Business School explains why and how we should get more comfortable with team conflicts.
Many people believe conflicts are ...
Usage (application): Group Decison Making, Group Dynamics, Conflict Management, Team Conflicts
 

Patrick Lencioni about Creating Trust by being Vulnerable as a Leader

Patrick Lencioni explains how vulnerability-based trust is crucial for a leader to create a team. People will follow leaders to a fire if they are hum...
Usage (application): Patrick Lencioni Revealing the Basic of Real Leadership: Vulnerability Based Trust
 

How to Build a Healthy Organization (Patrick Lencioni)

According ...
Usage (application): Understanding How a Leadership Team Can Build a Healthy Organization
 

Introduction to Working in Teams, Team Work and Related Concepts

Presentation about teamwork, including the following sections:
1. Importance of Teams
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Definitions of Concepts Re...
Usage (application): Team Management, Team Work, Groupthink
 

Group Conflicts, Group Cohesion and Groupthink in Decision Making

Presentation about conflicts and cohesion in groups, and how it influences decision making. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. ...
Usage (application): Group Decision Making, Conflicts in Groups, Cohesion of Groups, Groupthink
 

Increasing Group Participation: The 3 I's of Participation

Steve Davis explains his model to increase Group Participation.

There are three types of participation:
1. Physical participation (act...
Usage (application): Increase Participation in Groups (Workshops, Trainings, Project Teams)
 

Introduction to Organizing and Managing Projects and Teams

This presentation is about project planning and organization of project teams. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. Brook’s Law Usage (application): Project Planning, Project Management, Team Formation, Project Organization Types
 

Stages of Team Development Diagram

Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in intranets, websites, books, ma...
Usage (application): Team Development
 
 

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Compare with the Tuckman Stages of Team Development: Team Management Profile  |  Belbin Team Roles  |  PMBOK  |  IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB)  |  PAEI  |  Action Learning  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Johari Window


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