Positioning[定位] (Trout Ries)

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对公司产品/品牌/身份产生感知。 解释Positioning[定位] Trout & Ries。 (‘69)。 Reverse Positioning[逆向定位]、 Breakaway Positioning[分离定位]和Stealth Positioning[隐匿定位]的解析。 (‘05)

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什么是定位营销? 释义

定位营销(Positioning)是对产品、品牌以及企业身份产生感知的一种市场营销方法。 从1969年开始,二年轻营销人、Jack Trout和Al Ries,在他们叫Positioning[定位]的沟通写了,讲了话并且传播了对广告和公共关系世界关于一个新的概念。 事实上,定位这一概念最早出现于Jack trout 的一篇文章中,该文题为 《定位:当今模仿成风的市场所流行的游戏》,发表于《产业营销》杂志(Industry Marketing)(1969年,54卷6册,51-55页)。 1981年,他与Al Reis又共同出了一本关于定位营销的书, 《定位营销策略》(The Battle for Your Mind),这本书后来成为畅销书。 在此之前,广告商们一直在根据内部感知的企业产品价值来组织市场活动。
 

根据Trout和Ries, “Positioning[定位]不是什么您做对产品。 而是针对人心采取的行动。 也就是说,根据潜在购买者的想法定位产品。” 自此,市场营销人员开始运用定位技术在目标市场上构建产品、品牌的形象以及企业身份, 开始关注那些会影响潜在购买者感的因素。 定位营销同样是一项相对于竞争者的市场技术。 典型的定位营销工具包括感知图(Graphical Perception Mapping)、市场调研(Market Surveys),以及其他一些统计技术。
 

竞争优势与定位营销

一项成功的定位战略往往依据企业可持续的Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]。 定位可以依据以下几个方面展开:

  • 产品性能

  • 产品优点、所能满足的需求及解决方案

  • 使用类别

  • 使用场合

  • 与其他产品进行比较

  • 产品等级的离解

三项定位之基

  1. 功能性(解决顾客的问题、于顾客有益)
  2. 象征性(提升个人形象、个人识别、归属感和社会意义、情感满足)
  3. 经验性(提供感官刺激、 提供认知刺激)

产品定位的步骤 流程

  • 识别竞争性产品

  • 辨识界定产品生存空间的产品属性(亦可称之为“维度”)

  • 对顾客进行抽样调查,收集他们对于产品相关属性认知的信息

  • 确定每一种产品认知在整个市场面上的份额

  • 确定产品当前的市场空间

  • 确定目标市场所推崇的产品属性联合 这亦被称为“理想向量” (Ideal Vector

  • 检验: 竞争对手产品的定位、自己产品的定位以及理想向量的定位。

  • 选择最佳定位

Youngme Moon的三种定位战略

Youngme Moon在2005年5月号的《哈佛商业评论》上发表文章,提出三种定位战略,以此突破Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]的传统思维。 企业可以改变消费者对它的感知, 方法就是通过意想不到的方式进行定位以及再定位(Repositioning)。 市场人员用来使消费者心智感知发生迁移的三种定位战略就是:逆向定位、分离定位及隐匿定位。

  1. Reverse Positioning[逆向定位]。 这一定位战略目的在于除去产品所具有的“神圣”特征, 同时,将那些只存在高度扩张产品身上的典型性特征增加进来。 例如,宜家(IKEA)不提供送货服务,也不提供销售咨询, 但是,宜家增加的服务有: 儿童看护、玩具以及咖啡馆等。 推荐使用企业: 服务性公司。

  2. Breakaway Positioning[分离定位]。 此战略将产品引入完全不同的产品类别。 通过把握消费者对产品的感知和分类,企业能够改变消费者对本企业产品的Frame[心理定格]。 例如, 斯沃琪(Swath)不再把自己归为瑞士手表,而是时尚的装饰品。 推荐使用企业:包装零售企业/礼品公司。

  3. Stealth Positioning[隐匿定位]。 此战略通过将产品的真实属性隐藏起来,而逐渐把消费者引向新产品。 例如,索尼公司将AIBO机器人定位为受人喜爱的宠物。 这一定位成功地将机器人作为家庭助手的局限从消费者的注意力中转移走了。 同时,它还明显地将年长的消费者引领进科技产品的应用领域。 推荐使用企业: 技术产品型公司。

参考书: Jack Trout and Al Ries - Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind -


定位论坛
  翻译建议
It shall be "Swatch", but not "Swath" in your translation....
     
 
  Sit Back and Relax...
Watching another firm enter a market first and not entering yourself can be hard, but by doing this you can see what works and what doesn't. Sometimes a  
   
 
  Reverse and Stealth Positioning in Banking Institutions
Competition drives the use of reverse positioning and stealth positioning techniques in business transactions in many service industries. For example banks use reverse positioning combined with stealth positioning for promotional checks to con...
     
 
  Reposition or Relaunch?
I would like to know if repositioning is a good strategy or should we change the brand and re-launch the product? As Al Ries and Jack Trout have mentioned the most wasteful expense that a company could do is to try to change the mind of the prosp...
     
 
  Example of Poor Product positioning
Is there an example of confused positioning? What have been the market consequences to that?...
     
 
  What are the 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing by Ries and Trout ? Summary
Another well-known publication by Ries and Trout is the 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing (1994):
1. The Law of Leadership - It is better to be first than it is to be better.
2. The Law of the C...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 定位 高级帐户
  How to Measure the Effectiveness of Positioning?
In order to know how effective positioning is, positioning effectiveness should be measured.
Two main groups of positioning measurements exist, namely company-based and customer-based.
1. Comp...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Positioning 高级帐户
 

How to Develop the Positioning for a Bank?

According to L. Biff Motley in the article The Power of Positioning (ABA Bank Marketing, Jan/Feb 2003), the lesson for community banks from Reis...
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The Risk of Positioning your Product as 'The Best'

An article in the Harvard Business Review elaborates on the effects of positioning your product (company, organization) as 'the best. According to t...
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Self-gifting Buying Behavior

Clarke and Mortimer (2013) assess the motivations of self-gifting behavior and its following post-purchase regret. Self-gifting refers to buying produ...
Usage (application)Consumer Marketing, Self-Gifting, Consumption Behavior, Consumer Behavior
 
 
 

How to Better Understand your Customer's Needs?

In order to transform your customers experience and to better understand your customers needs, it is helpful to construct a hypothetical cons...
Usage (application)Customer Targeting and Strategy
 
 
 

The 22 Laws of Branding (Trout & Ries)

1. The Law of Expansion: The power of a brand is inversely proportional to its scope. Trying to be all things to all people undermines the power of th...
Usage (application)Branding, Brand Recognition
 
 
 

Social Persuasion: Determining the Potential of Social Influencers

Which consumers are best able to influence others in social groups? What characteristics and what factors identify those consumers with the greates...
Usage (application)Social Media Marketing, Social Influence, Opinion Leadership
 
 
 

Childrens' Understanding of Advertizing: Three Stages of Consumer Socialization

The way that people behave and how they make their decisions in the marketplace depends on the processes by which they have obtained skills, knowledge...
Usage (application)Advertizing to Children, Targeting Children, Consumer Socialization, Marketing to Children
 
 
 

Brand Engagement of Consumers in the Digital Age

Edelman argues that nowadays people are connecting with brands in a different way than before. This is cuased mainly because of an increased number of...
Usage (application)Branding, Brand Management, Marketing, Advertising
 
 
 

Customer Experience Management Framework

The concept of Customer Experience Management (CEM), which was developed by Bernd Schmitt, describes the process of strategically managing a cu...
Usage (application)Experiential Marketing
 
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application)Adoption of New Technologies
 
 

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比较:  Marketing Mix[营销组合]  |  Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的营销组合] (7Ps)  |  Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]  |  McKinsey Matrix[麦肯锡矩阵]  |  Innovation Adoption Curve[创新采用曲线]  |  Profit Pools[利润池]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]  |  Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]  |  Framing[心理定格]


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