Strategy Maps[战略图表] (Kaplan & Norton)

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生动描绘与沟通交流组织的价值创造: 将组织的各项战略目标进行因果相连。 解释Strategy Maps[战略图表] Kaplan和Norton (‘92, ‘01)。

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什么是战略图表? 释义

在2001书“The Strategy-Focused Organization”, Kaplan和Norton变换他们Balanced Scorecard[平衡计分卡]。 1992年,两位学者通过发表在《哈佛商业评论》上的一篇文章,提出了将平衡计分卡作为企业绩效管理系统。 在2001年的新书中,他们进一步提出将平衡计分卡作为企业战略管理系统。 这个飞跃性的转型就是通过战略图表(Strategy Map)来实现的。


战略图表将组织的各项战略目标进行因果相连, 从而反映出企业的价值创造过程。 战略图表采纳了平衡计分卡的四个视角,即 财务、顾客、流程,以及学习和成长。 参加下图(点击图片可以下载、查看PDF格式的大图)。 战略图表是平衡计分卡框架下的一个重要战略组成部分,对企业价值创造战略进行描述。


Strategy Maps[战略图表]战略图表的特征

  1. 所有信息包含在一页纸上, 使得战略沟通相对简单。

  2. 包含四个视角: 财务、 顾客、 内部(流程)、 学习和成长。

  3. 财务视角关注长期的股东价值创造,采用生产力战略,来改善成本结构和提高资产利用性;采用成长战略,来寻找新的市场机会和提升顾客价值。

  4. 以上四个方面的战略提升其切入点为:价格、质量、可获得性、可选择性、功能、服务、伙伴关系以及品牌,等等。

  5. 从内部视角来看,运营流程和顾客管理流程的作用就是制造、提供以及提升产品和服务的属性。 而创新、制度以及社会关系流程则帮助企业处理各项关系,树立社会形象。

  6. 所有这些流程都是通过对组织人力资本、信息资本以及组织资本进行有效配置来实现的。 这里,组织资本包括企业文化、领导力以及团队协同。

  7. 连接箭头表示各项之间的因果关系。

战略图表所包含的主要原则:

  1. 用战略来平衡对立力量。
  2. 战略的形成基于不同的顾客价值主张。
  3. 价值的创造与增加是通过企业内部业务流程来实现的。
  4. 战略既能够包含同时发生的不同主题,也能够包括补充性主题。
  5. 战略策应(Strategic Alignment)决定无形资产的价值。

战略图表的运用。 优点

通过将股东价值创造、客户管理、流程管理、质量管理、核心能力、创新、人力资源、信息技术、组织设计和组织学习等诸多战略内容及其相互关系在一张图上反映出来, 战略图表能够非常高效地向企业管理人员以及普通员工描述企业战略。 通过这种方法,还有助于战略策应的形成,进而使得战略执行更加容易, 往往战略执行才是企业面临的最大的挑战。


尽管在2001年出版的书作中,KaplanNorton已经花了64页的篇幅来介绍战略图表,但是在下面提到的参考书中,你能够发现关于战略图表的更全面的信息,包括战略图表运用的大量实例。


参考书: Robert Kaplan and David Norton - Strategy Maps [中译本《策略地图》,台湾脸谱出版社,2004] -



战略图表论坛
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  Strengths of Strategy Maps
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最佳实践 - 战略图表 高级帐户
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Strategy Maps 高级帐户
 

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比较: Balanced Scorecard[平衡计分卡]  |  Office of Strategy Management[战略管理办公室]  |  Performance Prism[绩效测量棱镜]  |  Catalytic Mechanisms[催化机制]  |  Intangible Assets Monitor[无形资产检测器]  |  People-CMM[人力资源能力成熟度模式]  |  IC Rating[智慧资本评级]  |  TQM[全面质量管理]


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