Stakeholder Mapping[利益相关者分析图]

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图示利益相关集团。 利益相关者分析图解析。

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什么是利益相关者分析图? 释义

在进行利益相关者分析过程中,往往有必要通过图形形式对不同的利益相关者加以归类,展示他们所分别代表的利益集团、利益所在、所拥有的力量、对企业目标具有的制约或支持因素,以及企业对其所采取的方法手段。 利益相关者分析图Stakeholder Mapping)则正是图示企业利益相关者的这样一个过程。
 

在各种利益相关者分析方法中,最常用的主要有以下几种: 内部/外部利益相关者分析法首要/次要利益相关者分析法力场分析法SWOT分析法行为者影响图法(Actor Influence Diagrams)。 行为者影响图法能够帮助描绘出存于利益相关者关系网络中的各种正式的和非正式的(更为重要)的关系 。 存于各利益相关者之间的各种关系通过带有箭头的曲线来表现,并将各利益相关者联系起来。 正式关系与非正式关系用不同的箭头来表示。


以下具体介绍几种常用的利益相关者分析图。


其一就是影响力/活力矩阵(Power/Dynamism Matrix。 此利益相关者分析图根据利益相关者的影响力及其活力对其进行分类, 通过这一矩阵,企业就能够探知在实施新战略过程中要对各利益相关者分别采取哪些措施。

  • A组(低影响力低活力)和B组(低影响力高活力)的利益相关者最容易应对。

  • C组(高影响力低活力)利益相关者因为具有相当的力量,所以属于重要的利益相关者。 但因为活力较低,所以他们的行为态势具有可预见性,其利益需求亦相对容易处置。

  • D组(高影响力高活力)利益相关者不仅具有很强的影响力而且具有非常高的活力,他们的行为态势难以预见,所以最需要引起企业管理层的注意。 在实施新的战略举措之前,最好先通过测试性措施来观测其反应。

利益相关者分析图 - 影响力/活力矩阵

另一利益相关者分析图就是影响力/利益矩阵(Power/Interest Matrix。 此利益相关者分析图根据利益相关者的影响力及其与企业战略所牵连到的利益对其进行分类。 企业可以通过影响力/利益矩阵来决定与各利益相关者分别构建什么样的关系。

  • A组(低影响力低切身利益)利益相关者只需最低限度的关注。

  • B组(低影响力高切身利益)利益相关者应予知会, 他们能够影响更为重要的利益相关者。

  • C组(高影响力低切身利益)利益相关者虽然具有相当的力量,但由于企业所采取的战略举措牵涉到他们的利益不多, 他们基本上会采取相对顺服的姿态,但也可能因为任何突发事件,改变其态度而成为D组一员。 所以,对他们的利益要求应予满足。

  • D组(高影响力高切身利益)利益相关者既具有很强的影响力,又与企业所采取的战略举措具有极高的关联性, 所以,企业实行战略举措之前,必须要把他们能否接受该战略纳入考虑范畴。

利益相关者分析图 - 影响力/利益矩阵

此外,米切尔、艾格拉和伍德(1997,1999)建立了另一个利益相关者分析模型,即影响力、正当性与紧迫性模型Power, Legitimacy and Urgency Model)。 该模型依据利益相关者的三种属性,将企业的利益相关者分为三大类型七个种类(参见右图),以此来了解利益相关者是否可能采取行动。这三种属性就是:

  • 影响力(Power),即利益相关者影响企业行为的能力(权力)。

  • 正当性(Legitimacy),即利益相关者的诉求是否合理。

  • 紧迫性(Urgency),即利益相关者的诉求是否急迫。

第一种类型是潜在型的利益相关者(Latent Stakeholders),他们只具有利益相关者三种属性中的一种。 他们又被进一步细分为三个种类,即休眠型的利益相关者(Dormant Stakeholder)、裁量型的利益相关者(Discretionary Stakeholder)、要求型的利益相关者(Demanding Stakeholder)。


第二种类型是期待型的利益相关者(Expectant Stakeholders),他们具有利益相关者三种属性中的二种。 他们也被进一步细分为三个种类,即支配型的利益相关者(Dominant Stakeholder)、危险型的利益相关者(Dangerous Stakeholder)、依存型的利益相关者(Dependent Stakeholder)。


第三种类型是决定型的利益相关者(Definitive Stakeholders,他们同时具有利益相关者的三种属性。

利益相关者分析图 - 影响力、正当性与紧迫性

需要注意的是,虽然企业的管理层不得不对每一利益相关者的地位进行评估, 但是,管理层的主观意志往往占据上风,并最终决定企业对待每一利益相关者的态度和方式。

 

参考书: Gardner, J.R., Rachlin, R. and Sweeny, H.W.A. - Handbook of Strategic Planning (1986) -

参考书: Mitchell, R.K., Agle, B.R., Sonnenfeld, J.A. - Who Matters to CEOs? An Investigation of Stakeholders Attributes and Salience, Corporate Performance and CEO Values (1999) -


利益相关者分析图论坛
  Stakeholder Salience (Mitchell, Agle and Wood)
Mitchell, Agle and Wood expressed the importance of stakeholders needs and wishes to the company with the term 'salience'. Stakeholders salience is defined as 'the degree to which managers give priority to competing stakeholder claims' and i...
     
 
  Stakeholder Mapping Should Focus More on Relationships between Stakeholders and Their Interplay
In my opinion we should increasingly focus stakeholder mapping on the relationships and dynamics between various stakeholders, rather than the individual significance and influential ability of each stakeholder. Mapping of these relationships ...
     
 
  Stakeholder Mapping: Is the "Management" also a Stakeholder?
I have a question to ask: when developing a crisis plan and mapping the stakeholders for this, is the management part of the key stakeholders?
If yes, how should the power/ interest matrix be analyzed when the management is included as a key sta...
     
 
  Employees as a Stakeholder
When referring to stakeholders, enhancement of shareholder value seemed to take center stage for a longtime.
Lately, the realization that stakeholders are more than shareholders is stronger. One key stakeholder are of course the employees. They...
     
 
  Stakeholder Mapping for Insurance Company
Does anyone have a model for external stakeholder mapping for an insurance company. Need it for a comprehensive strategy alignment....
     
 
  Stakeholder Mapping in a University
Can anyone share how do you go about using stakeholder mapping to a public sector like universities in a practical way?...
     
 
  Political Influence Map
When preparing for corporate change and adoption programs, you can use a political influence map. This significant input into implementation plans, reduces the risk of cultural rejection of the change program.
Another use of the method, i...
     
 
  Actor Network Theory by Bruno Latour
Who can provide some more info / reference about this model?...
     
 
  Other Mapping Approaches
I'm a bit surprised the way "mapping" is interpreted... Here it's equated with matrices and what is more commonly called "conceptual mapping" which are useful but really on the the tip of the iceberg. I find web crawls, social network analysis, va...
     
 
  Stakeholder Map for Pharma Company
I am wondering if you have a framework that could describe stakeholder mapping for the pharma company (physicians, patients, payors)? Power is definitely one dimension but not sure what is the other. Thanks...
     
 
  Conceptual Stakeholder References
Hello, everyone, I have recently joined this forum, interested in sharing and getting more references on stakeholder mapping and stakeholder analysis.
I read the MAW article referenced in this page which proved excellent input for a point of vie...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 利益相关者分析图 高级帐户
  How to Create a Stakeholder Map? Steps
What are the main steps in constructing a stakeholder map?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Stakeholder Mapping 高级帐户
 

7 Perspectives of Looking at Stakeholders

Ian Mitroff, Emeritus Professor from the University of Southern California, identified seven categories of stakeholder perspectives than can help to d...
Usage (application)Clustering Stakeholders
 
 
 

Multiple Perspectives of Analyzing Stakeholders

Ian Mitroff, Emeritus Professor from the University of Southern California, identified seven categories of stakeholder perspectives than can help to d...
Usage (application)Clustering Stakeholders
 
 
 

How to Reduce Stakeholder Complexity

A useful tool to understand what is happening in a complex situation is the Black Box.
It is a strategy for investigating a complex object...
Usage (application)Stakeholder Analysis Tool
 
 
 

Categories of Stakeholder Perspectives

Ian Mitroff, Emeritus Professor from the University of Southern California, identified seven categories of stakeholder perspectives than can help to d...
Usage (application)Clustering Stakeholders
 
 
 

Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

According to Ken Blanchard in the article Mastering the Art of Change (Training Journal, January 2010), it is important for leaders to address the f...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 
 

How to Effectively Conduct a Stakeholders Meeting?

Here are a few tips to effectively manage a stakeholders meeting:
1. Try to avoid getting into details and drawn into a conversation about a lo...
Usage (application)Stakeholder Meetings, Best Practices
 
 
 

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

In management literature the role of the CEO in formulating and implementing strategic change has often been emphasized.
An interesting view to s...
Usage (application)Communicating Strategic Change
 
 
 

Describing and Analyzing Driving Forces

When analyzing potential trends or driving forces, for them to be relevant they must have at least one effect on the terrain of your focal issue. This...
Usage (application)FFA Implementation
 
 

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比较: Stakeholder Analysis[利益相关者分析]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Stakeholder Value Perspective[利益相关者价值观]  |  Shareholder Value Perspective[股东价值观]  |  Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]  |  Clarkson Principles[克拉克森原则]  |  Intrinsic Stakeholder Commitment[内部相关者认同]  |  Strategic Stakeholder Management[利益相关者战略管理]  |  PEST Analysis[PEST分析]  |  Crisis Management[危机管理]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]


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