Action Learning[行动学习法] (Revans)

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关于经验学习以及棘手难题的解决方法。 Revans的Action Learning[行动学习法]解析。 (‘69)

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什么是行动学习法(Action Learning)? 释义

行动学习法的不同解释:

  • 一群具有不同技能和经验的人,被组合成团队,分析解决某一实际工作问题,或执行一项具体行动方案的过程。 在方案执行过程中,这一专门小组不断聚会,对方案进行及时修正,与此同时,小组成员学到新知。 简而言之,行动学习法就是在实践中学习。
  • 一种个人成长和组织发展的方法。 工作在同一个组织或团队中的成员,协同应对重大组织难题,努力扭转困难局面,并将其视为学习过程。 当人们面对难题挑战时——这些难题通常有一个正确答案,传统的系统化教学法,可以说是一个非常有效的学习途径。 然而,当面对那些没有所谓正确答案的“问题”时,则需要有一种批判式的思考能力与质疑式的洞察能力。 行动学习法恰恰提供给了人们一个向困难学习、向过程学习以及向自己学习的机会,进而鼓励人们做这样的一种批判式思考。 这种学习方法的优越性在于,所学知识更加容易被转移到日后类似的情境中去,参与者将经历一种“循环学习”的体验。当类似情境出现,参与者收获的不仅是对行动计划的真实反馈,而且是对自我内心及心智模型的真实检阅。
  • 一个基于经验的、助人成长的学习方法,运用解决实际困难的方式实现学习目的。 行动学习法项目以专门小组为单位,他们经常性地举行聚会,讨论解决真实具体难题,并带有明确的从实践中学习的目的。 小组内往往有名一经验丰富的督导员,他擅长于从小组成员的集体活动中发现、创造学习机会。

行动学习法通常包括以下活动 Action Learning[行动学习法]

  1. 从实际经验中学习。
  2. 创造性地解决问题。
  3. 自觉获取相关知识。
  4. 团队成员互助学习。

上述每一项活动就其自身而言,都是很重要的学习方法,但它们必须融为一体,融入实际行动中,才称得上行动学习法,才更为有效。
 

行动学习法的特征

  1. 以实践活动为重点。
  2. 以学习团队为单位。
  3. 以真实案例为对象。
  4. 以角色扮演为手段。
  5. 以团体决断为要求。
  6. 以终结汇讲为形式(Presentation)。

行动学习法的起源。 历史

Reg Revans教授在早在1940年代首先引入了“行动学习法”这一概念,并将其应用于英格兰和威尔士煤矿业的组织培训。 据Revans教授本人的阐述,行动学习法的目的不仅是为了促进某一具体项目或个人的学习发展,更致力于推动组织变革, 将组织全面转化成“一个学习系统”。


行动学习法的公式

Revans教授用公式L = P + Q来描述行动学习法,这里L代表知识(Learning),P代表系统化程序化(Programmed),Q代表提问、质疑(Questioning),亦即真知灼见来源于对系统化知识的深度辨析。


行动学习法的实际运用。 应用

  • 阐述复杂的、棘手的难题。
  • 寻找从根源上解决问题的办法。
  • 确立战略性的指导方案,发掘尽可能多的机会。
  • 产生创造性的主意。

行动学习法的步骤。 流程

  1. 开宗明义。 向全体小组成员汇讲所面临的困难、所要执行的任务。 一个专门小组通常能够处理一项或多项任务。
  2. 成立小组。 学习小组成员包括志愿者或指派人员,他们既可以致力于同一个组织问题,也可以协同解决各自部门所独有的难题。 应召人员要有互补的专业技能和经验知识。 比较: Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]。 学习小组可以聚会一次或多次, 这取决于问题的难易程度以及时间限度。
  3. 分析问题。分析小组所面临的各项问题,思考解决问题的行动计划。
  4. 汇讲问题。问题提供者向小组其他成员介绍他的问题。 问题提供者可以作为小组成员留在组内工作,或者退出,或者等待小组给出具体建议。
  5. 问题重组。 在对各项难题条分缕析之后,并经由行动学习法督导员的指导,学习小组将就亟待解决的关键问题、核心问题达成共识。 学习小组还要找出困难、问题的症结所在,这一发现很有可能不同于起初的判断和认定。
  6. 确立目标。 关键问题被找到之后,学习小组要确立目标,并就此达成共识。 这一目标就是要立足长远、从个人、团队及组织的三方立场出发,积极稳妥地解决经由小组重新认定的问题。
  7. 制定战略。 学习小组大部分的时间和精力将要用在问题辨析、方案测试上。 同样,行动战略的制订和产生也要通过小组成员的相互交流和深思熟虑。
  8. 采取行动。 在学习小组聚会前后的时间里,小组成员合作或者独立工作,收集相关信息,搜寻支持要素,执行经由小组议定的行动战略。
  9. 工作循环。小组成员反复聚会、研讨、学习、行动,直到认定的困难、问题被解决,或者又有新的指导方案被提出为止。
  10. 见缝插针。 在小组举行研讨会期间,行动学习法督导员被允许在任何可能的情况下,打断小组会议, 向小组成员提出问题,借以帮助他们:
    • 澄清问题。
    • 寻找更佳的途径,使得团队行动表现得更好。
    • 思考是否能够将个人的学习收获应用到个人成长、团队和组织发展上去。

    每隔一段时间,要重新召集会议,讨论进展情况、吸取经验教训、审议下一步工作。 每次会议都要做好会议记录,以备未来查询参考。 要重点记录每一学习阶段所汲取的经验教训。

行动学习法的优势。 优点

  • 提供了一个高效的、创造性的行动与学习相结合的学习方法。 这种方法在变革迅猛、经常面对不可预知的挑战性工作环境里,显得尤为重要。
  • 有助于解决各种疑难杂症、急迫难题。
  • 有助于培养富有技能的领导和高效团队。
  • 有助于企业文化转型,培育学习型组织。
  • 所有投入最终转化成切实成果。
  • 与己休戚相关的学习案例,极易调动成年人的学习积极性。 与此同时,各种方法、技能应用于真实案例,其有效性一目了然。参与者很容易就能告诉自己,哪些是有用的,哪些能够被应用到他处。

行动学习法的局限。 缺点

  • 行动学习法要求组织一系列有效的学习活动。
  • 行动学习法的项目设计及其内容至关重要。
  • 参与者有时会将重点放在结果上,而对学习过程不予足够的重视。 如果没有充分的反馈、反思,行动学习法无异于执行正常的工作任务。
  • 一旦某一小组成员或是某一专业领域形成主导局面,学习小组所产生的任何成果便再无创造性、深刻性可言。 (比较: Groupthink[团体迷思])。
  • 需要一个优秀的、客观的督导员。
  • 项目结果的后续工作有虎头蛇尾的风险。

参考书: R.W. Revans - Action Learning: New Techniques for Management -

参考书: Michael Marquardt - Action Learning in Action: Transforming Problems and People... -

参考书: Michael Marquardt - Optimizing the Power of Action Learning: Solving Problems and Building Leaders... -


行动学习法论坛
  行动学习法的保障
关键有6个保障:高层、问题、小组、承诺、引导、推广。...
     
 
  Distance: An Action Learning Delusion?
The distance between our actions and the observable, known, impact of those actions can be close (when we have a coaching conversation with a team member) or far (when we take a decision at head office and the primary impact is in the customer/patien...
     
 
  Which Comes First - Action or Learning?
Does action always precede learning or does learning precede action? Does this matter? Can both take place simultaneously?
Not exactly questions on the meaning of life but still intriguing
And what does 'action' mean - if you read a book o...
     
 
  Action Learning in Fire Departments
I am exploring the possibilities of action learning in the discipline and work practices of fire departments in the Netherlands. I'm searching for examples of investigated action learning in similar disciplines or professional groups, especially in t...
     
 
  The Difference in Learning Between Knowing and Doing
When it comes to learning, there is a world of difference between knowing and doing. Many learning programmes leave participants 'knowing' lots about leadership or team working (for example), but do not deliver on 'doing'.
This can be understood...
     
 
  New Radka Action Learning Matrix
Please have a look at my new Action Learning Matrix which can be used to understand the learning dynamics of teams and leaders. It has been placed in the 'Resources - Action Learning' part of this AL Knowledge Centre. I would be very interested in an...
     
 
  Experiential Learning Through Virtual Simulation
One of the processes involved in action learning is experiential learning: a learning technique that takes into account the impact of emotions and subjectivity and its influence on the learners experience. Team-based experiential learning is an effe...
     
 
  A New Name for Action Learning?
What do you think: Is it time for a name change and a relaunch?
How about: Learning in Action - sounds more dynamic.
Or: Action for Learning?
Any other ideas for a new, better name for a new future for Action Learning?...
     
 
  Socrates and Action Learning?
The Socratic Method - which he used more than 2000 years ago still works and has many similarities to an Action Learning approach. For example what about Socratic Circles for Business? Follow the steps below with some facilitation:
1.&#...
     
 
  Key Features of Action Learning
Here's a list of the key features of Action Learning (AL) in a business context.
- Small action sets with people who work together in a supportive and challenging way with each other
- Clear ground ...
     
 
  New Year Action Learning Resolutions
Now may be a good point to put time in the diary very early in 2014 to actively reflect on 2013 and what has been learned - with a clear intent to take action in the New Year to improve our lives?...
     
 
  Does Action Learning Deal with the Knowing - Doing Gap?
Action Learning is surely working in this era of human behavior and learning? Is there far too much knowing in organizations and far too little doing?...
     
 
  Action Learning Mantra - Right or Wrong?
Revans said: There is no learning without action and no sober and deliberate action without learning.
Is this really true? Cannot some people keep taking the same action over and over without learning? Can organisations not do this as wel...
     
 
  Action Learning Facilitation
Revans (1998) himself was critical of the need for facilitators apart from the earliest stages of the process, believing that independence was important.
How important is the role of a facilitator in an Action Learning set in the current busines...
     
 
  Conditions for Action Learning. Circumstances
My experience in a corporate organization is that you need:
1. An active driver (champion) behind the AL process, to ensure that everyone commit the time they promised initially.
2. Monitoring also drives the behavior....
     
 
  Why Action Learning? Purpose
Many "study groups" result in heightened awareness and increased knowledge but often stop there. In my work with action learning teams (mostly corporate based) the key purpose is getting increased or better RESULTS. Leveraging and combining:
     
 
  Similar Knowledge Level
First of all, to succeed in active learning, the different entities involved should not be far in terms of basic knowledge to be able to achieve an initial transfusion of knowledge from the highest to the lowest level. Then, add tο the gr...
     
 
  Introduction to 2nd and Consecutive Sessions
I have learned that is very important to start second and consecutive sessions in a learning course with a brief review of the past concepts, to reinforce them in the process. Just select some questions to evaluate how the participants are inv...
     
 
  New Technologies for Action Learning
Great overview, my interest is how the new technologies "leverage" action learning (and research)?...
     
 

行动学习法 小组


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最佳实践 - 行动学习法 高级帐户
  Action Learning in Leadership Development
Leadership development programs that most organizations currently use do not deal with all dimensions necessary for becoming an excellent leader, according to M. Marquardt.
As a result, leaders are perfectly able to handle problem-solving models...
     
 
  Virtual Action Learning
Is anyone doing virtual action learning? If so i'd be very interested to hear from you. I'm researching this emerging form of action learning....
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Action Learning 高级帐户
 

Capturing Learned Lessons: After Action Reviews

Knowledge from bad and good experiences will lead you and your organization to better future performance. You can improve your learning culture with <...
Usage (application)How to Capture Organizational Learning? Best Practices
 
 
 

'Action' Learning is Misleading...

Note that the title "Action Learning" can be a bit misleading, because it emphasizes action, learning in practical situations rather than study...
Usage (application)Understanding Action Learning
 
 
 

Action Learning Groups / Programs

According to Michael J. Marquardt (Action Learning in Action), there are two basic types of programs: Single-project programs and open-group programs....
Usage (application)Creating an Action Learning Organiztion
 
 
 

6 Action Learning Components

According to Michael J. Marquardt (Action Learning in Action), Action Learning has Six Interactive Components:
1. A problem
2. The gr...
Usage (application)How To Apply It
 
 
 

Execution as Learning

Also compare Action Learning with the quite similar Execution as Learning-approach by Amy Edmondson....
Usage (application)Similar Approach
 
 
 

Core Characteristic of Action Learning

The difference between a simple work team (like a task force or a quality circle) and an Action Learning group is the simple work team is charg...
Usage (application)What Makes an AL Group Different?
 
 
 

Alignment is key

Having used action learning in several programs over 3 years I now always align the Action Learning with the strategy of the business in order to ensu...
Usage (application)Change and innovation
 
 

相关资料 - 行动学习法 高级帐户
 

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比较: Team Management Profile[团队管理剖面]  |  Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]  |  8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Knowledge Management[知识管理] (Collison & Parcell)  |  SECI model[SECI模型]  |  Bridging Epistemologies[桥接认识论]  |  Organizational Learning[组织学习]  |  Organizational Memory[组织记忆]  |  Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图]  |  Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]  |  Training Within Industry[业内训练]  |  Pyramid Principle[金字塔原则]


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