Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]
(Ansoff)

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市场渗透、市场开发、产品延伸、多元化经营。 Igor Ansoff的Product/Market Grid[产品-市场方格]解析。 (‘57)

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Ansoff Matrix产品市场 什么是产品/市场方格? 释义

Ansoff的产品/市场方格(Product/Market Grid)已被证明是一项非常有用的管理模型,能够帮助企业在战略流程中准确发现成长机会。 产品/市场方格有两个维度,即 产品和市场。


在这两个维度间进行纵横组合,能够形成四种不同的成长战略(参见右图)。


产品市场方格模型下的四个成长战略

  1. 市场渗透(Market Penetration。 追求当前市场上更多的销售量。 通过执行这一战略,努力将一般顾客培养成稳定顾客,将稳定顾客培养成忠诚顾客。 市场渗透战略的执行手段有:数量折扣、礼金卡以及顾客关系管理。 企业最终通过高效的生产和分销能力,借助市场强劲的购买力,以及分摊掉的间接成本,从而实现经济规模。
  2. 市场开发(Market Development。 提供现有产品开拓新市场。 这一战略通常要求企业用现有产品去吸引竞争对手的顾客,向新市场介绍自己的产品,或在新市场推广新品牌。 这里的新市场,既是指地理上的新市场,也是指功能上的新市场,例如尽管销售的商品未变,但其购买和使用目的发生了变化。 当然,一些小的改动也许是需要的。 这里需要强调的是,要注意文化差异。
  3. 产品延伸(Product Development。 在现有市场上推出新产品或新服务。 采用这一战略,通常要求向现有顾客销售另一种产品, 它们可能是原来产品的附件、增加物,或者是全新的产品。 这一战略通常运用的执行手段是交叉销售(Cross Selling), 并对现有的沟通、销售渠道加以利用。
  4. 多元化经营(Diversification)。 在新市场上销售新产品。 这是四种战略中最具风险的一种。 决定采用多元化经营时,企业必须要与利益相关者进行充分沟通,要能够清楚地解释企业为什么要开发新产品,进入新市场。 从另一个角度看,多元化战略也能够减小企业的经营风险。因为,作为一个大公司,通过分散经营于不同的市场,在一定程度上可以分散企业的风险。 多元化经营的四种方式:
    • 水平多元化(Horizontal Diversification。 这种情况下,公司新产品对现有顾客仍有吸引力,即便在技术工艺上新旧产品可能完全不相关。
    • 垂直多元化(Vertical Diversification。 公司选择新的供应商,或服务新的顾客群。
    • 同心多元化(Concentric Diversification。 这是指,新产品与现有产品在技术上或市场上具有协同优势,尽管新产品可能完全服务于一个新的顾客群体。
    • 聚积多元化(Conglomerate Diversification。 这种情况下,新产品与现有产品在技术上是市场方面无协同效应可言,新产品需要新的顾客。 聚积多元化有时候被一些大公司用来平衡循环业务组合与非循环业务组合。

Ansoff的产品/市场方格理论,尽管已经问世很多年,但它指导企业成长与战略发展方面的价值仍然是很明显的。 产品/市场方格也往往被称作: Ansoff矩阵(Ansoff Matrix)、产品市场扩张方格(Product Market Expansion Grid)、成长矢量矩阵(Growth Vector Matrix)。 Derek F. Abell提出了 Three Dimensional Business Definition[三维商业定义],较之Ansoff矩阵更为高明。


产品/市场方格论坛
  Translation-Ansoff Product-Market Matrix
For the same word, development, used in "Market Development" and "Product Development", you translated with two different Chinese words. One is 开发,and the other is 延伸. Do you have any thoughts on this? I guess they are quite different in C...
     
 
  Be Careful with Benefits of Diversification - Misconceptions and Generalizations
WHY DIVERSIFY
According to Reel and Luffman (1986) the reason behind diversification lies within the benefits connected to a broader product-market base. However, they also point out that before being lured by the benefits from implementing such...
     
 
  How to Decide in Which Sector to Diversify?
When a firm decides to diversify there could be several possible factors to take into account when making the choice for the business or industry in which to diversify.
  • According to Neffke and Henning, the factor that matters ...
     
 
  What is the Optimal Level of Diversification for Firm Performance?
The relationship between diversification and financial performance has been a topic of research for many years but is yet to reach a consensus. However, there are several suggestions on how diversification could influence a company's performance
     
 
  How to Prioritize Business Growth Opportunities (Ansoff): The ICE Prioritization Tool
The Ansoff Matrix can be a useful model to generate and communicate business growth opportunities. However, organizations need to keep in mind that there are several factors that might hinder companies to pursue certain strategies, such as the availa...
     
 
  Diversification in Africa: Why African Economies must Diversify
Many African economies have not diversified. Rather they are highly dependent on the production and export of one specific type of commodity. For example, between 1992 and 1997 more than 85 percent of export earnings of Unganda came from exporting co...
     
 
  Strategy for Expanding a Business
A person started a business of extracting metals. Soon it became a popular business. In order to expand his business, he needs to utilize a strategy and follow it.
What kind of strategy could he use?...
     
 
  Summary of STRATOP Model
Who can provide a short summary of the STRATOP model? It is supposed to be a model for designing effective product and communication strategies. Thank you......
     
 
  Product/Market Growth Matrix, Product Market Combination (PMC), PMG
The Product/Market Grid or Ansoff Matrix is also called: Product/Market Growth Matrix.
The 4 growth strategies are also called Product/Market Combinations (PMCs), although product/market combinations are also referred...
     
 
  Diversification and Globalisation
How can diversification be a tool for globalization?...
     
 
  Ansoff Matrix for Marketing Strategy
The Ansoff matrix clearly describes the marketing strategy and how to launch our product in the market and at what time....
     
 
  Turbulence, Planning and Paralysis
Igor Ansoff (1918-2002) was (one of) the first to recognize that the amount of strategic 'turbulence' (~pace of change) was increasing and to devise a structured strategic planning process to cope with this. But he also coined the humor...
     
 
  Ansoff Matrix Applications
The Products/Markets grid helps in differentiating between game changing & orbit changing moves of an organisation from a strategy perspective....
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Product/Market Grid 高级帐户
 

Typical Risks of a Diversification Strategy

Typical risks of a Diversification strategy in the Ansoff Grid are:
1. Requires a company to acquire new skills, new techniques and new facilitie...
Usage (application)Marketing Strategy
 
 
 

A More Advanced Version of the Ansoff Matrix

While his original Product Market Matrix had only two dimensions:
1. Product, and
2. Market),
in 1987 Ansoff introduced the Geograp...
Usage (application)Product Development, Product Portfolio Management
 
 
 

How to Find or Redefine Market Boundaries?

In their book: Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition...
Usage (application)Diversification
 
 
 

Must-haves of a Portfolio Strategy

Ansoff mentions 4 components of a portfolio strategy:
1. (Geographic) Growth Vector: a graphical representation of the firm's current stra...
Usage (application)Product Portfolio Management, Best Practices, Product Strategy
 
 
 

Pitfalls and Obstacles in Product Development Strategy

Although product development can be an important growth strategy, it is necessary to keep in mind that several factors tend to hinder this strategy: Usage (application)Product Development, Product Portfolio Management
 
 
 

Diversification Pitfalls

Diversification of businesses has in many cases resulted in success. An example is General Electric, a very large company that operates in many busine...
Usage (application)Things to Signal and Avoid when Diversifying
 
 
 

Challenging the Existing Strategic Logic

A tool by Kim and Mauborgne is the "Four Actions Framework". This Four Actions Fr...
Usage (application)Market Development, Diversification
 
 
 

Typical Risks of a Market Development Strategy

Typical risks in the Ansoff framework of a Market Development strategy are:
1. New markets may be different then expected (especially in new geo...
Usage (application)Marketing Strategy
 
 
 

In Which Direction Should we Grow our Portfolio?

According to Professor Aneel G. Karnani in 'Mastering Strategy', there's no standard way to gain market value for all businesses. An answer that works...
Usage (application)Portfolio Strategy, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Typical Risks of a Market Penetration Strategy

Typical risks of a Market Penetration strategy in the Ansoff Growth Strategies model are:
1. May lead to a price war with a competitor with the ...
Usage (application)Marketing Strategy
 
 
 

Determining the Optimal Breadth of your Product Portfolio

Due to technology changes and a stiffing competition at all levels, historically companies needed to constantly check their portfolio and cut off unpr...
Usage (application)Product Portfolio Analysis
 
 
 

The SCAMPER Technique to Creatively Solve Problems and Create Innovative Ideas

SCAMPER is a creative or lateral thinking technique that can be applied particularly for the developme...
Usage (application)Creative Thinking, Lateral Thinking, Idea Generation, Innovation Ideas, Product Innovation, Product Development
 
 

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比较: Three Dimensional Business Definition[三维商业定义]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Relative Value of Growth[增长相对价值]  |  Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  Organizational Configurations[组织构型]  |  3C's


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