Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]
(Levitt)

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行业成熟阶段分析。 Levitt、Fox、Wasson、Hofer、Anderson、Zeithaml、Hill及Jones等人的Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]理论解析。 (‘65)

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产品生命周期(PLC)模型可以帮助分析产品以及行业的成熟阶段。


1965年,Theodore Levitt 在《哈佛商业评论》(43卷,81-94页)上的经典之作—— 《开发产品生命周期》(Exploit the Product Life Cycle),首次提出了产品生命周期的概念。 任何公司都在通过最大化产品和服务的销售收入,来探寻未来现金流持续增长的方式, 因为,现金流是一个生存能力、投资能力以及人力资源活力的保证。 所有这些努力最终都落在了占有额外市场份额、谋取行业领袖地位上。

对于企业长期投资来说,持续稳定的现金流至关重要,那么,最好的保持现金流稳定的办法就是要有一个或多个金牛。 所谓金牛,就是在成熟市场上,占据了大量市场份额的强势产品。


现代市场环境下,PLC变得越来越短。 许多企业通过产品差异化、市场细分化战略,使得成熟产品获得新生。 企业日益关注PLC的成本与回报,不断对其进行评估,因为产品可资利用的销售时间和回收投资成本的时间,正在逐渐收缩。

虽然PLC缩短了,但是许多产品的使用寿命却被延长了。 例如,一些耐用品如汽车、家庭日用品的使用寿命较之过去大大地变长了。 所以,当企业还在规划他们的产品时,就应该将产品的市场生命周期和使用寿命周期同时纳入考虑范畴。 现在,越来越多的企业已经开始从产品生命周期出发,考虑如何进一步优化产品的营收和利润, 商品保质期、成品配件以及产品的更新能力等也因此越发受到企业的关注和重视。

Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]产业成熟阶段毋庸置疑,PLC概念对企业的经营战略、绩效表现有着重要影响。 PLC理论指出了产品生命周期有4个阶段, 从产品问世到退出市场,这4个阶段对产品销售有着不同影响。


产品生命周期的四个阶段

  • 引入阶段(Introduction Stage。 产品投入市场,并通过集中的、剧烈的市场活动,建立清晰的产品识别身份、促进最大化的公众认知。 试用、购买促进活动也发生在这一阶段。
  • 成长阶段(Growth Stage。 当销售不断增加、市场出现竞争者时,产品便进入成长阶段。 从卖方角度来看,成长阶段的另一个特点是持续的市场促进活动。 从顾客角度来看,重复购买也是成长阶段的一个特点。
  • 成熟阶段(Maturity Stage。 成熟阶段的一个标志是,由于竞争的加剧,部分竞争者开始推出市场。 同时,销售增长速度急剧下降,销售额达到一个平稳水平。 此时,购买产品的主要是典型的忠诚顾客。
  • 衰退阶段(Decline Stage。 由于此前的市场竞争、不利的经济条件、不断出现的新产品和替代品,产品从而进入了衰退阶段。

除了上述4阶段产品生命周期模型外,另有一些其他版本的产品生命周期、行业生命周期(ILC),亦被用来解释产品、市场和行业的发展。 它们非常相似,但在周期阶段的划分上略有不同, 如下。
 

生命周期模型的变异

1973年: Fox : 前商品化阶段 - 引入阶段 - 成长阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。
1974年: Wasson : 市场发展阶段 - 快速成长阶段 - 竞争动荡阶段 - 饱和/成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。

1984年: Anderson & Zeithaml : 引入阶段 - 成长阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。

1998年: Hill & Jones : 孕育阶段 - 成长阶段 - 震荡阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。


产品生命周期论坛
  How to Revitalize your Product when it is Matured and Starts to Decline?
Friends, I need your tips on what to do when you realize that your product is matured and will soon start to decline (within 6 months or so).
Note: I want to make changes in product; please do not answer me to "shut down" my product or sell it o...
     
 
  PLC and Food Standards
Dear all,
I am looking for information about the potential relationship between the PLC and food standards. In particularly, I am interesting how can the PLC can be used to analyze food standards; and can the phases defined in the original PLC b...
     
 
  Importance of the Product Life Cycle for the CEO
Generally the product life cycle is co-determined by a CEO of the organization where he starts. The idea then culminates into a product, grows up and attains maturity and gradually declines by which time CEO also gets obselete in his function.
T...
     
 
  Why Could a Product in its Decline Stage Still Be Attractive for a Firm?
The logical thinking seems to be that a company should not stay or invest in a 'decline stage product'. However already in 1983, Harrigan and Porter identified three groups of factors that could indicate that a market may still be attractive durin...
     
 
  Configuration Management Summary
CM is a process for managing complex (mostly technical) systems by establishing and maintaining consistency of a products performance and functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design and operational information throughout its lif...
     
 
  Comparing the Product Life Cycle and the BCG Matrix
We can map or plot the product life cycle stages to the BCG matrix quadrants as follows:
1. Introduction - Question Mark
2. Growth - Star
3. Mature - Cash Cow
4. Decline - Dog
Reactions are welcome......
     
 
  References of PLC Gates Wanted
What are some useful references about Product Life Cycle (PLC) gates?...
     
 
  Product Life Cycles are Not Fluent
In reality, product life curves are not so smooth nor bell curve shaped.
There are ditches, then relaunches with an improved product, then steady growth, then decline in hiccups....
     
 
  The Element of Time in Product Life Cycle
Has anyone researched the "time characteristics" of various markets with the intention to establish early warnings/triggers of the next product life-cycle stage? This would allow time and revenue trends to guide management decisions....
     
 
  What is the Influence of a Product Recall on the PLC?
Nowadays we hear a lot about organisations recalling their products from markets due to various reasons.
How is this product recall mechanism related to the product life cycle?...
     
 
  Effect of Moment of Introduction on Product Life Cycle?
Is there a relationship between the introduction time in various parts of the world of a certain product (for example the iPhone which is introduced earlier in the US) and the product life cycle of the iPhone?
Is Apple trying to extend the life ...
     
 
  Product Life Cycle and Capacity Planning
How does the PLC curve influence various capacity decisions / strategy, depending on the PLC stage?...
     
 
  Pricing Strategy as per Product Life Cycle Stage
Can somebody explain appropriate pricing strategy as per Product Life Cycle Stage? Thanks......
     
 
  Pepto Bismol's Long Life
Pepto Bismol is alive and leader of it's category despite its old age (108 years); the product is basically the same... How do you explain that?...
     
 
  Real Estate Business, Life Cycle
In the present state, the life cycle of a particular product/project in real estate could have a long flat phase, before it achieves growth as well as maturity.. In such case, the curve shall have horizontal line of longer duratio in stages....
     
 
  Revitalization: Why and When?
Brand Management: why do marketers go for revitalization and in which stage of the Product Life Cycle (PLC)?...
     
 
  Stage after Breakeven
What is the name given to the stage where a product hit a breakeven?...
     
 
  Opportunity for Value Engineering in PD?
Opportunity for VE in terms of areas during the life span of a product. We all know that as product development goes in to maturity stage, the opportunity for VE is limited but still opportunity is there. Can we discuss those areas in brief.......
     
 
  How to Avoid the Decline Stage of the PLC?
Understanding the phases of the product life cycle, are there ways of preventing these products from reaching the decline phase?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 产品生命周期 高级帐户
  The Product Life Cycle is not always Shaped like a Wave Form!
The wave form is not carved in stone. Sometimes a product (or service) that is already in its Maturity or even Decline phase can suddenly re-emerge in a growth phase. Often this is the result of a technology breakthrough or of a crisis.
Example:...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Product Life Cycle 高级帐户
 

Market Leader Strategies in the Growth Stage of the Product Life Cycle

The appropriate marketing strategies for products or services that are in the growing stage of the PLC depend on the position of the firm at hand: is ...
Usage (application)Growth Stage Strategy, Market Leader Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Don't Make this Frequently Made Mistake in Product Life Cycle Management!

Watch out for a frequently made mistake that is based on a wrong interpretation of this model:
Do not assume automatically that a product ...
Usage (application)Innovation Management, Product Marketing, Product Lifecycle Management
 
 
 

Unconventional Product Life Cycle: High Tech

In his 1991 book 'Crossing the Chasm' Geoffrey A. Moore presented the unconventional PLC of high-tech products. In Moore's thinking, the majority of n...
Usage (application)Managing the PLC of High-tech Products
 
 
 

Typical Product Characteristics and Changes during PLC

Products may change dramatically during their PLC in terms of quality, design, differentiation degree, destination of use. Here are some typical aspec...
Usage (application)Product Management
 
 
 

Framework for Decline Phase of the Product Life Cycle

The decline phase of a product PLC is as important as its introduction in the market stage. When products enter this stage, they must be managed to Usage (application)Managing the Decline Phase
 
 
 

Marketing Strategies in Introduction Stage of PLC

When a business is launching a totally new product or service it could select the following marketing strategies during the introduction stage:...
Usage (application)Introduction of a New Product, Introduction of a New Service, Introduction Stage, Introduction Strategies
 
 
 

Critics of the Product Life Cycle Concept During the Years

In the current fast changing environment the efficacy of the PLC model as a marketing tool has been widely questioned by various writers in the acade...
Usage (application)Product Life Cycle History
 
 
 

Challenges of the Product Life Cycle for Marketing and R&D

Here following there are some elements which can be useful as a description of the most common challenges faced by both Marketing and R&D functions on...
Usage (application)PLC at Functional Level, Marketing and R&D
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application)Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006):
1. STRATEGY MISTAKES - Seeking...
Usage (application)Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Organizational Life Cycle

Also organizations evolve through a kind of life cycle, a series of developmental stages similar to those described in Levitts Product Life Cycle. Th...
Usage (application)Organizational Development
 
 
 

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and from dotcoms (e.g. British Airwa...
Usage (application)5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
 
 
 

Challenges of the Product Life Cycle for Manufacturing & Distribution

Here are some typical challenges faced by Manufacturing and Distribution functions, on each development stage of a product life cycle:
1. Manu...
Usage (application)PLC at Functional Level, Manufacturing & Distribution
 
 
 

Marketing Strategies in the Decline Stage of the Product Life Cycle

When a business has its product or service in the decline stage, the following strategies can be used:
1....
Usage (application)Decline Stage Strategy, Market Decline Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through User Involvement Early in the Life Cycle

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application)Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 
 

Marketing Strategies for Market Leaders in the Maturity Stage

A company that operates its products in the maturity stage can make use of several strategies. The main objective of these strategies for a market lea...
Usage (application)Maturity Stage Strategy, Market Leader Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Buyer Types and their Behaviours Depending on PLC Stage

It is important to understand that different kinds of people will buy a product in different development stages. And even the same people can adopt di...
Usage (application)Understanding what Buyers Want in a Particular Stage
 
 
 

Follower Marketing Strategies in the Growth Stage of the PLC

A company that is characterized as a FOLLOWER in the market should aim at building a market share by winning over some of the competitor's customers a...
Usage (application)Growth Stage Strategy, Follower Growth Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Limitations of Product Life Cycle in FMCG

In his 1993 article 'A Two-Decade Test of Product Life Cycle Theory', D. Mercer from The Open University, School of Management in UK, draws some rele...
Usage (application)PLC Boundaries
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application)(Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application)Adoption of New Technologies
 
 
 

Product Life Cycles do Not Exist in Reality

Always remember, in reality, products do not have a predictable life and specific life cycle curves followed by different products may vary substantia...
Usage (application)Decision-making
 
 

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比较: Bass Diffusion Model[巴斯扩散模型]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]  |  ADL Matrix[ADL矩阵]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Relative Value of Growth[增长相对价值]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  GE Matrix[GE矩阵]  |  Innovation Adoption Curve[创新采用曲线]  |  STRATPORT[STRATPORT模型]  |  Profit Pools[利润池]  |  Marketing Mix[营销组合]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]


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