PLC(제품 수명주기)
(Levitt)

지식 센터

   

산업의 성숙단계 분석. Levitt, 여우, Wasson, Hofer, Anderson & Zeithaml, Hill & Jones의 PLC(제품 수명주기)의 설명. ('65)

목차

  1. 요약
  2. 포럼
  3. 모범 사례
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 자료
  6. 인쇄

PLC 모델은 제품과 산업의 성숙단계를 분석하는데 도움이 된다.


PLC라는 용어는 1965년 Theodore Levitt HBR 논문에서 처음 사용하였다 : "Exploit the Product Life Cycle" (Vol 43, 11-12월, 1965, pp 81-94). 어떤 회사든지 제품과 서비스의 판매를 통한 수입의 극대화로 미래의 현금흐름이 성장하는 방법을 끊임없이 찾고 있다. 현금 흐름은 기업의 생존능력을 유지하고 신제품 개발에 투자하고 인력의 개선을 가능하게 해준다. 이 모든 것은 시장점유율을 추가로 획득하고 각각의 산업에서 리더가 되기 위한 노력이다.

제품판매를 통한 꾸준하고 지속가능한 현금흐름(수입)는 장기적인 투자의 핵심이고, 안정적인 수입흐름을 획득하는 최선의 방법은 한개 이상 자금젖소(Cash Cows)가 있는이다. 자금젖소(Cash Cows)는 성숙한 시장에서 큰 시장점유율을 달성한 강력한 제품이다.


또한 현대의 PLC는 점점 더 짧아지고 있다. 성숙산업에서 많은 제품들이 제품차별화와 시장세분화로 재탄생되고 있다. 조직은 점점 더 제품수명주기 비용과 수익을 재평가하고 있다. 왜냐하면 제품을 판매하고 투자를 회수하는데 필요한 시간이 줄어들고 있기 때문이다.

제품의 라이프 사이클이 줄어들고 있더라도 많은 제품의 수명의 운영은 길어지고 있다. 예를 들면 자동차와 가전제품같은 몇몇 내구재의 운영수명은 상당히 증가되었다. 그 결과로 그러한 제품을 생산하는 기업은 기획단계에서부터 시장의 수명과 서비스 수명을 고려해야 한다. 점차로 기업들은 제품의 전체 수명기간동안 수입과 이윤을 최적화하려고 시도한다. 이러한 것들은 제품 워런티, 부품, 기존제품의 업그레이드 능력 등을 통해 시도된다.

PLC(제품 수명주기) 기업 성숙 단계PLC 개념은 사업의 전략과 기업의 성과에 중대한 영향을 미치는 것은 분명하다. PLC 방법은 제품판매에 영향을 미치는 각각의 단계을 확인한다. 제품이 출하되어 퇴장할 때가지.


PLC 단계

  • 도입 단계. 제품은 명확한 아이덴터티를 구축하고 최대한의 인식을 촉진하기 위해 집중되고 강력한 마케팅 노력을 통하여 시장에 도입된다. 많은 시범구매와 충동구매가 이 단계에서 일어난다.
  • 성장 단계. 판매 증가와 경쟁자의 출현으로 성장단계에 들어선 것을 확인할 수 있다. 벤더의 측면에서 보면 성장단계는 지속적인 마케팅활동의로 특징지워진다. 일부 고객은 반복구매를 한다.
  • 성숙 단계. 경쟁자가 시장을 떠나기 시작할 때 이 단계를 확인할 수 있다. 또한 판매 속도가 급격히 감소하고 판매량은 제자리 수준에 머문다. 이 시점에서는 일반적으로 충성도 높은 고객이 제품을 구매한다.
  • 쇠퇴 단계. 끊이지않는 경쟁의 영향, 열악한 시장환경, 새로운 트렌드 등이 판매의 쇠퇴를 설명한다.

산업수명주기 모델의 몇가지 변형된 형태가 제품, 시장, 산업의 발전을 다루기 위해 개발되었다. 비록 유사한 모델들이라 하더라도 각 단계의 수와 명칭은 차이가 있다. 몇몇 주요 모델의 예 :
 

수명주기 모델의 변형

1973년: Fox: 사전상업화 - 도입 - 성장 - 성숙 - 쇠퇴.
1974년: Wasson: 시장 개발 - 급속한 성장 - 경쟁적인 혼란 - 포화 또는 성숙 - 쇠퇴

1984년: Anderson & Zeithaml: 도입 - 성장 - 성숙 - 쇠퇴

1998년: Hill and Jones: 미발달 - 성장 - 침체 - 성숙 - 쇠퇴


제품 수명주기 포럼
  How to Revitalize your Product when it is Matured and Starts to Decline?
Friends, I need your tips on what to do when you realize that your product is matured and will soon start to decline (within 6 months or so).
Note: I want to make changes in product; please do not answer me to "shut down" my product or sell it o...
     
 
  PLC and Food Standards
Dear all,
I am looking for information about the potential relationship between the PLC and food standards. In particularly, I am interesting how can the PLC can be used to analyze food standards; and can the phases defined in the original PLC b...
     
 
  Importance of the Product Life Cycle for the CEO
Generally the product life cycle is co-determined by a CEO of the organization where he starts. The idea then culminates into a product, grows up and attains maturity and gradually declines by which time CEO also gets obselete in his function.
T...
     
 
  Why Could a Product in its Decline Stage Still Be Attractive for a Firm?
The logical thinking seems to be that a company should not stay or invest in a 'decline stage product'. However already in 1983, Harrigan and Porter identified three groups of factors that could indicate that a market may still be attractive durin...
     
 
  Configuration Management Summary
CM is a process for managing complex (mostly technical) systems by establishing and maintaining consistency of a products performance and functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design and operational information throughout its lif...
     
 
  Comparing the Product Life Cycle and the BCG Matrix
We can map or plot the product life cycle stages to the BCG matrix quadrants as follows:
1. Introduction - Question Mark
2. Growth - Star
3. Mature - Cash Cow
4. Decline - Dog
Reactions are welcome......
     
 
  References of PLC Gates Wanted
What are some useful references about Product Life Cycle (PLC) gates?...
     
 
  Product Life Cycles are Not Fluent
In reality, product life curves are not so smooth nor bell curve shaped.
There are ditches, then relaunches with an improved product, then steady growth, then decline in hiccups....
     
 
  The Element of Time in Product Life Cycle
Has anyone researched the "time characteristics" of various markets with the intention to establish early warnings/triggers of the next product life-cycle stage? This would allow time and revenue trends to guide management decisions....
     
 
  What is the Influence of a Product Recall on the PLC?
Nowadays we hear a lot about organisations recalling their products from markets due to various reasons.
How is this product recall mechanism related to the product life cycle?...
     
 
  Effect of Moment of Introduction on Product Life Cycle?
Is there a relationship between the introduction time in various parts of the world of a certain product (for example the iPhone which is introduced earlier in the US) and the product life cycle of the iPhone?
Is Apple trying to extend the life ...
     
 
  Product Life Cycle and Capacity Planning
How does the PLC curve influence various capacity decisions / strategy, depending on the PLC stage?...
     
 
  Pricing Strategy as per Product Life Cycle Stage
Can somebody explain appropriate pricing strategy as per Product Life Cycle Stage? Thanks......
     
 
  Pepto Bismol's Long Life
Pepto Bismol is alive and leader of it's category despite its old age (108 years); the product is basically the same... How do you explain that?...
     
 
  Real Estate Business, Life Cycle
In the present state, the life cycle of a particular product/project in real estate could have a long flat phase, before it achieves growth as well as maturity.. In such case, the curve shall have horizontal line of longer duratio in stages....
     
 
  Revitalization: Why and When?
Brand Management: why do marketers go for revitalization and in which stage of the Product Life Cycle (PLC)?...
     
 
  Stage after Breakeven
What is the name given to the stage where a product hit a breakeven?...
     
 
  Opportunity for Value Engineering in PD?
Opportunity for VE in terms of areas during the life span of a product. We all know that as product development goes in to maturity stage, the opportunity for VE is limited but still opportunity is there. Can we discuss those areas in brief.......
     
 
  How to Avoid the Decline Stage of the PLC?
Understanding the phases of the product life cycle, are there ways of preventing these products from reaching the decline phase?...
     
 

제품 수명주기 시그(SIG)


시그(SIG)

제품 수명주기 교육 및 이벤트


교육, 세미나 및 이벤트 찾기


모범 사례 - 제품 수명주기 프리미엄
  The Product Life Cycle is not always Shaped like a Wave Form!
The wave form is not carved in stone. Sometimes a product (or service) that is already in its Maturity or even Decline phase can suddenly re-emerge in a growth phase. Often this is the result of a technology breakthrough or of a crisis.
Example:...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Product Life Cycle 프리미엄
 

Market Leader Strategies in the Growth Stage of the Product Life Cycle

The appropriate marketing strategies for products or services that are in the growing stage of the PLC depend on the position of the firm at hand: is ...
Usage (application) : Growth Stage Strategy, Market Leader Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Don't Make this Frequently Made Mistake in Product Life Cycle Management!

Watch out for a frequently made mistake that is based on a wrong interpretation of this model:
Do not assume automatically that a product ...
Usage (application) : Innovation Management, Product Marketing, Product Lifecycle Management
 
 
 

Unconventional Product Life Cycle: High Tech

In his 1991 book 'Crossing the Chasm' Geoffrey A. Moore presented the unconventional PLC of high-tech products. In Moore's thinking, the majority of n...
Usage (application) : Managing the PLC of High-tech Products
 
 
 

Typical Product Characteristics and Changes during PLC

Products may change dramatically during their PLC in terms of quality, design, differentiation degree, destination of use. Here are some typical aspec...
Usage (application) : Product Management
 
 
 

Framework for Decline Phase of the Product Life Cycle

The decline phase of a product PLC is as important as its introduction in the market stage. When products enter this stage, they must be managed to Usage (application) : Managing the Decline Phase
 
 
 

Critics of the Product Life Cycle Concept During the Years

In the current fast changing environment the efficacy of the PLC model as a marketing tool has been widely questioned by various writers in the acade...
Usage (application) : Product Life Cycle History
 
 
 

Marketing Strategies in Introduction Stage of PLC

When a business is launching a totally new product or service it could select the following marketing strategies during the introduction stage:...
Usage (application) : Introduction of a New Product, Introduction of a New Service, Introduction Stage, Introduction Strategies
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application) : Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006):
1. STRATEGY MISTAKES - Seeking...
Usage (application) : Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Organizational Life Cycle

Also organizations evolve through a kind of life cycle, a series of developmental stages similar to those described in Levitts Product Life Cycle. Th...
Usage (application) : Organizational Development
 
 
 

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and from dotcoms (e.g. British Airwa...
Usage (application) : 5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
 
 
 

Challenges of the Product Life Cycle for Manufacturing & Distribution

Here are some typical challenges faced by Manufacturing and Distribution functions, on each development stage of a product life cycle:
1. Manu...
Usage (application) : PLC at Functional Level, Manufacturing & Distribution
 
 
 

Challenges of the Product Life Cycle for Marketing and R&D

Here following there are some elements which can be useful as a description of the most common challenges faced by both Marketing and R&D functions on...
Usage (application) : PLC at Functional Level, Marketing and R&D
 
 
 

Marketing Strategies in the Decline Stage of the Product Life Cycle

When a business has its product or service in the decline stage, the following strategies can be used:
1....
Usage (application) : Decline Stage Strategy, Market Decline Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through User Involvement Early in the Life Cycle

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application) : Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 
 

Marketing Strategies for Market Leaders in the Maturity Stage

A company that operates its products in the maturity stage can make use of several strategies. The main objective of these strategies for a market lea...
Usage (application) : Maturity Stage Strategy, Market Leader Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Buyer Types and their Behaviours Depending on PLC Stage

It is important to understand that different kinds of people will buy a product in different development stages. And even the same people can adopt di...
Usage (application) : Understanding what Buyers Want in a Particular Stage
 
 
 

Follower Marketing Strategies in the Growth Stage of the PLC

A company that is characterized as a FOLLOWER in the market should aim at building a market share by winning over some of the competitor's customers a...
Usage (application) : Growth Stage Strategy, Follower Growth Strategy, PLC
 
 
 

Limitations of Product Life Cycle in FMCG

In his 1993 article 'A Two-Decade Test of Product Life Cycle Theory', D. Mercer from The Open University, School of Management in UK, draws some rele...
Usage (application) : PLC Boundaries
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application) : (Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application) : Adoption of New Technologies
 
 
 

Product Life Cycles do Not Exist in Reality

Always remember, in reality, products do not have a predictable life and specific life cycle curves followed by different products may vary substantia...
Usage (application) : Decision-making
 
 

자료 - 제품 수명주기 프리미엄
 

뉴스

제품 수명주기
     
 

뉴스

제품 수명주기
     
 

영화

제품 수명주기
     
 

영화

제품 수명주기
     
 

프리젠 테이션

제품 수명주기
     
 

프리젠 테이션

제품 수명주기
     
 

제품 수명주기
     
 

제품 수명주기
     

PLC 관련개념 :  Bass Diffusion Model [Bass확산모델]  |  스테이지 게이트모델 [Stage-gate]  |  ADL 매트릭스  |  BCG 매트릭스  |  Relative Value of Growth [성장의 상대적가치]  |  Positioning [포지셔닝]  |  GE 매트릭스  |  Innovation Adoption Curve [혁신수용모델]  |  STRATPORT 모델  |  이윤풀 [Profit Pools]  |  마케팅 믹스  |  4 Trajectories of Industry Change [산업변화의 괘적모델]  |  Co-Creation [코크리에이션, 소비자연계가치창조]  |  Disruptive Innovation [파괴적 혁신]


다른 페이지로 이동: Change & Organization [변화와 조직]  |  의사결정과 가치평가  |  재무와 투자  |  마케팅  | 전략  |  공급망관리와 품질


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