Ciclo de Vida del Producto
(Levitt)

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Analizando las etapas de madurez de la industria. Descripción del Ciclo de Vida del Producto de Levitt, Fox, Wasson, Hofer, Anderson y Zeithaml, Hill y Jones. ('65)

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El modelo del Ciclo de Vida del Producto puede ayudar a analizar las etapas de madurez de productos y de industrias.


El término fue utilizado por primera vez por Theodore Levitt en 1965 en un artículo de la revista Harvard Business Review: “Explote el Product Life Cycle (Ciclo de Vida del Producto)” (vol. 43, noviembre de diciembre de 1965, pp 81-94). Cualquier compañía está buscando constante maneras de aumentar los flujos de fondos futuros gracias a la maximización de la venta de productos y de servicios. El flujo de fondos permite que una compañía mantenga su viabilidad, la invierta en el desarrollo de un producto nuevo y mejore su mano de obra. Todo esto en un esfuerzo por adquirir una participación adicional de mercado y hacerse un líder en su industria respectiva.

Un flujo de fondos (utilidades) constante y sostenible proveniente de las ventas del producto, es una condición dominante para cualquier inversión de largo plazo, y la mejor manera de lograr una corriente estable del beneficios es tener una o más Vacas lecheras. Las Vacas lecheras son los productos fuertes que han logrado una gran participación de mercado en mercados maduros.


El Ciclo de Vida del Producto moderno se está conviertiendo en ciclos cada vez más cortos. Muchos productos en industrias maduras son revitalizados por una diferenciación o una segmentación de mercado. Las organizaciones crecientemetne están reconsiderando cada vez más los costos y réditos del ciclo de vida del producto, porque el tiempo disponible para vender y recuperar la inversión efectuada en un producto es cada vez más corto.

Aunque el ciclo de vida del producto se contrae, la vida operativa de muchos productos se está alargando. Por ejemplo, la vida operativa de algunas mercancías duraderas, tales como automóviles y periféricos han aumentado substancialmente. Consecuentemente, las compañías que producen estos productos deben tomar en cuenta la vida comercial y la vida de servicio cuando esten planificando. Una vez más las compañías están procurando optimizar el rédito y beneficios sobre el ciclo de vida completo. Hacen esto en consideración con las garantías del producto, de las piezas de repuesto, y de la capacidad de aumentar los productos existentes.

Etapas de evolución de la industria del Ciclo de Vida del Producto Es claro que el concepto de Ciclo de Vida del Producto tiene un importante impacto sobre la estrategia de negocio y el desempeño de la corporación. El método de Ciclo de Vida del Producto identifica las distintas etapas que afectan las ventas de un producto. Del inicio del producto hasta su retiro.


Las etapas del Ciclo de Vida del Producto

  • Etapa de introducción. El producto se introduce en el mercado con un esfuerzo de comercialización enfocado e intenso, diseñado para establecer una clara y para promover su máximo conocimiento. Muchas de las compras de ensayo o de impulso son las que ocurrirán en esta etapa.
  • Etapa de crecimiento. Puede ser reconocido por el aumento de las ventas y la aparición de competidores. Del lado del vendedor, la etapa de crecimiento también es caracterizada por actividades sostenidas de comercialización. Algunos clientes hacen compras de repetición.
  • Etapa de evolución. Esta fase se puede reconocer cuando los competidores comienzan a dejar el mercado. También, la velocidad de las ventas se reduce dramáticamente, y el volumen de ventas alcanza un nivel constante. A este punto del ciclo, los clientes típicamente leales son los que compran el producto.
  • Etapa de declinación. Los efectos persistentes de la competencia, de las condiciones económicas desfavorables, nuevas tendencias, etc, explican a menudo la declinación en las ventas.

Aunque los modelos son similares, difieren en cuanto al número y los nombres de las etapas. Aquí presentamos una lista de algunos modelos importantes:
 

variaciones del modelo del ciclo vital

1973: Fox: precomercialización - introducción - crecimiento - madurez - declinación.
1974: Wasson: desarrollo de mercado - crecimiento rápido - turbulencia competitiva - saturación/madurez - declinación

1984: Anderson y Zeithaml: introducción - crecimiento - madurez - declinación

1998: Hill y Jones: - embrionario - crecimiento - reestructuración - madurez - declinación




Foro de Ciclo de Vida del Producto Ayuda
  Ejemplos de Etapas del Ciclo de Vida del Producto
Quisiera saber ejemplos de cada etapa del ciclo de vida del producto de hoy en dia por favor!!
Gracias!!...
     
  PLC and Food Standards
Dear all,
I am looking for information about the potential relationship between the PLC and food standards. In particularly, I am interesting how can the PLC can be used to analyze food standards; and can the phases defined in the original PLC b...
     
  Importance of the Product Life Cycle for the CEO
Generally the product life cycle is co-determined by a CEO of the organization where he starts. The idea then culminates into a product, grows up and attains maturity and gradually declines by which time CEO also gets obselete in his function.
T...
     
  Why Could a Product in its Decline Stage Still Be Attractive for a Firm?
The logical thinking seems to be that a company should not stay or invest in a 'decline stage product'. However already in 1983, Harrigan and Porter identified three groups of factors that could indicate that a market may still be attractive durin...
     
  Configuration Management Summary
CM is a process for managing complex (mostly technical) systems by establishing and maintaining consistency of a product’s performance and functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design and operational information throughout its lif...
     
  Comparing the Product Life Cycle and the BCG Matrix
We can map or plot the product life cycle stages to the BCG matrix quadrants as follows:
1. Introduction - Question Mark
2. Growth - Star
3. Mature - Cash Cow
4. Decline - Dog
Reactions are welcome......
     
  References of PLC Gates Wanted
What are some useful references about Product Life Cycle (PLC) gates?...
     
  Product Life Cycles are Not Fluent
In reality, product life curves are not so smooth nor bell curve shaped.
There are ditches, then relaunches with an improved product, then steady growth, then decline in hiccups....
     
  The Element of Time in Product Life Cycle
Has anyone researched the "time characteristics" of various markets with the intention to establish early warnings/triggers of the next product life-cycle stage? This would allow time and revenue trends to guide management decisions....
     
  What is the Influence of a Product Recall on the PLC?
Nowadays we hear a lot about organisations recalling their products from markets due to various reasons.
How is this product recall mechanism related to the product life cycle?...
     
  Effect of Moment of Introduction on Product Life Cycle?
Is there a relationship between the introduction time in various parts of the world of a certain product (for example the iPhone which is introduced earlier in the US) and the product life cycle of the iPhone?
Is Apple trying to extend the life ...
     
  Product Life Cycle and Capacity Planning
How does the PLC curve influence various capacity decisions / strategy, depending on the PLC stage?...
     
  Pricing Strategy as per Product Life Cycle Stage
Can somebody explain appropriate pricing strategy as per Product Life Cycle Stage? Thanks......
     
  Pepto Bismol's Long Life
Pepto Bismol is alive and leader of it's category despite its old age (108 years); the product is basically the same... How do you explain that?...
     
  Real Estate Business, Life Cycle
In the present state, the life cycle of a particular product/project in real estate could have a long flat phase, before it achieves growth as well as maturity.. In such case, the curve shall have horizontal line of longer duratio in stages....
     
  Revitalization: Why and When?
Brand Management: why do marketers go for revitalization and in which stage of the Product Life Cycle (PLC)?...
     
  Stage after Breakeven
What is the name given to the stage where a product hit a breakeven?...
     
  Opportunity for Value Engineering in PD?
Opportunity for VE in terms of areas during the life span of a product. We all know that as product development goes in to maturity stage, the opportunity for VE is limited but still opportunity is there. Can we discuss those areas in brief.......
     
  Avoiding the Decline Stage
Understanding the phases of the product life cycle, are there ways of preventing these products from reaching the decline phase?...
     
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Mejores Prácticas - Ciclo de Vida del Producto Premium
  Revitalization from maturity / decline phase
The wave form is not carved in stone. Sometimes a product (or service) that is already in its Maturity or even Decline phase can suddenly re-emerge in a growth phase. Often this is the result of a technology breakthrough or of a crisis.
Example:...
     

Expert Tips (ENG) - Product Life Cycle Premium
 

Market Leader Strategies in the Growth Stage of the Product Life Cycle

The appropriate marketing strategies for products or services that are in the growing stage of the PLC depend on the position of the firm at hand: is ...
Usage (application): Growth Stage Strategy, Market Leader Strategy, PLC
 
 

Don't Make this Frequently Made Mistake in Product Life Cycle Management!

Watch out for a frequently made mistake that is based on a wrong interpretation of this model:
Do not assume automatically that a product ...
Usage (application): Innovation Management, Product Marketing, Product Lifecycle Management
 
 

Unconventional Product Life Cycle: High Tech

In his 1991 book 'Crossing the Chasm' Geoffrey A. Moore presented the unconventional PLC of high-tech products. In Moore's thinking, the majority of n...
Usage (application): Managing the PLC of High-tech Products
 
 

Typical Product Characteristics and Changes during PLC

Products may change dramatically during their PLC in terms of quality, design, differentiation degree, destination of use. Here are some typical aspec...
Usage (application): Product Management
 
 

Framework for Decline Phase of the Product Life Cycle

The decline phase of a product PLC is as important as its introduction in the market stage. When products enter this stage, they must be managed to Usage (application): Managing the Decline Phase
 
 

Critics of the Product Life Cycle Concept During the Years

In the current fast changing environment the efficacy of the PLC model as a marketing tool has been widely questioned by various writers in the acade...
Usage (application): Product Life Cycle History
 
 

Marketing Strategies in Introduction Stage of PLC

When a business is launching a totally new product or service it could select the following marketing strategies during the introduction stage:...
Usage (application): Introduction of a New Product, Introduction of a New Service, Introduction Stage, Introduction Strategies
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book “Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products”, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application): Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006):
1. STRATEGY MISTAKES - Seeking...
Usage (application): Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 

Organizational Life Cycle

Also organizations evolve through a kind of life cycle, a series of developmental stages similar to those described in Levitt’s Product Life Cycle. Th...
Usage (application): Organizational Development
 
 

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and from dotcoms (e.g. British Airwa...
Usage (application): 5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
 
 

Challenges of the Product Life Cycle for Manufacturing & Distribution

Here are some typical challenges faced by Manufacturing and Distribution functions, on each development stage of a product life cycle:
1. Manu...
Usage (application): PLC at Functional Level, Manufacturing & Distribution
 
 

Challenges of the Product Life Cycle for Marketing and R&D

Here following there are some elements which can be useful as a description of the most common challenges faced by both Marketing and R&D functions on...
Usage (application): PLC at Functional Level, Marketing and R&D
 
 

Marketing Strategies in the Decline Stage of the Product Life Cycle

When a business has its product or service in the decline stage, the following strategies can be used:
1....
Usage (application): Decline Stage Strategy, Market Decline Strategy, PLC
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through User Involvement Early in the Life Cycle

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application): Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 

Marketing Strategies for Market Leaders in the Maturity Stage

A company that operates its products in the maturity stage can make use of several strategies. The main objective of these strategies for a market lea...
Usage (application): Maturity Stage Strategy, Market Leader Strategy, PLC
 
 

Buyer Types and their Behaviours Depending on PLC Stage

It is important to understand that different kinds of people will buy a product in different development stages. And even the same people can adopt di...
Usage (application): Understanding what Buyers Want in a Particular Stage
 
 

Follower Marketing Strategies in the Growth Stage of the PLC

A company that is characterized as a FOLLOWER in the market should aim at building a market share by winning over some of the competitor's customers a...
Usage (application): Growth Stage Strategy, Follower Growth Strategy, PLC
 
 

Limitations of Product Life Cycle in FMCG

In his 1993 article 'A Two-Decade Test of Product Life Cycle Theory', D. Mercer from The Open University, School of Management in UK, draws some rele...
Usage (application): PLC Boundaries
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application): (Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote “Structure of Scientific Revolutions”, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application): Adoption of New Technologies
 
 

Product Life Cycles do Not Exist in Reality

Always remember, in reality, products do not have a predictable life and specific life cycle curves followed by different products may vary substantia...
Usage (application): Decision-making
 

Recursos - Ciclo de Vida del Producto Premium
 

Noticias

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Modelo
     
 

Noticias

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Etapas
     
 

Vídeos

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Modelo
     
 

Vídeos

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Etapas
     
 

Presentaciones

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Modelo
     
 

Presentaciones

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Etapas
     
 

Más

Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Modelo
     
 

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Ciclo De Vida Del Producto Etapas
     

Compare el Ciclo de Vida del Producto con: Modelo de Difusión de Bass  |  Etapa-Puerta  |  Matriz ADL  |  Matriz BCG  |  Valor Relativo del Crecimiento  |  Posicionamiento  |  GE  |  Teoría de la Difusión de Innovaciones  |  STRATPORT  |  Fondos de Beneficio  |  Mezcla de Mercadotecnia  |  Cuatro Trayectorias de Cambio de la Industria  |  Co-Creación  |  Innovación Disruptiva


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