Co-Creation[共同创造]
(Prahalad Ramaswamy)

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与顾客一起创造价值。 Prahalad和Ramaswamy的Co-Creation[共同创造]解析。 (‘03)

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什么是共同创造(Co-Creation)? 释义

共同创造根据C.K. Prahalad和Venkatram Ramaswamy的研究,由于政府解除产业管制(Deregulation)、新兴市场出现、行业规则出现新形式、科技与产业实现聚合,以及各项关联无所不在,已经使得商业世界的面貌大大改变。 而且,这一变化还在不断持续、加深。
 

这些因素也改变了消费者的属性特征。 今天的消费者不仅信息灵通、非常活跃,而且形成网络、遍布全球。
这些因素同样也改变了公司的属性特征。 今天的公司能够将价值链化整为零(这在过去是做不到的), 能够将公司的物质部分以及非物质部分(如业务和管理流程)进行分隔细分。

上述趋势使得一种新的价值创造形式成为可能: 共同创造(Co-Creation)。传统的价值创造过程是公司在企业内部创造价值,然后在市场上与顾客进行价值交换。 现在,价值必须由由公司与顾客联合起来共同创造。 在传统系统内,产品和服务的生产完全由公司来决定,公司通过推断来决定顾客需要什么样的价值。 在这个系统里,顾客这一角色与价值创造几乎毫无关系。 在过去的二十年间,管理者已经找到了一些办法,切割出部分工作,交给公司的顾客来做。 例如,自行付费结帐的零售系统、产品开发流程的顾客参与、以及产品和服务中存在大范围的顾客自适变量。 共同创造不是简单的顾客导向,它走得更远。
 

根据Prahalad的观点,与共同创造变化趋势相关联的是,过去的以企业或产品为中心的价值创造观正在转变为以经验为中心的共同创造价值观。 允许每一名顾客与公司合作、分享经验、共同创造,实现高质量的交互融合,正是挖掘企核心竞争力新源泉的关键。 产品虽为人造,但随之创造出来的还有一种独特的个人体验。
 

共同创造的起源。 历史

20世纪90年代, Prahalad和另一位管理巨擘Gary Hamel共同创造了一项影响深远的管理理论—— “Core Competence[核心竞争力]”。 核心竞争力是公司所独有的能力和经验知识,为公司带来竞争优势。


共同创造的步骤。 流程

价值共同创造过程的典型步骤:

  1. 明确定义项目目标。
  2. 准确找到需要融入到项目中来的顾客。 比较: Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]。 顾客不断变化,明天的顾客可能就会和今天的有所不同。
  3. 与顾客合作,找出他们真正需要包含在产品或服务中的成分。
  4. 联合设计产品及系统,以满足那些特殊成分的生产需求。 这还要求企业选择适当的合作伙伴,融入自己的生产经营网络。
  5. 决定如何分享价值。
  6. 战胜来自网络内部的各种阻力——经销商、顾客及企业的合作伙伴。 这是一个至关重要的步骤,确保企业能够有效控制各个渠道。

共同创造的局限。 缺点

  • 市场、行业、公司、系统以及人员的变革并没有理论设想得那么快, 在世界范围内实现普遍的共同创造还有很长的路要走。
  • 合作往往比竞争困难得多。
  • 共同创造的理念对管理者的诸多行为习惯也提出了挑战。 将公司内的人员思维习惯导向外部的顾客思维习惯,绝非易事。
  • 以公司“所有”为基础的会计规则也遭到挑战, 但是,会计规则恰恰是出了名的难以变革。

结束语: 亲历共同创造的体验, 就在这里,就在此刻!

  • 想要经历共同创造的体验吗? 12Manage能够帮你实现。 请点击本页面顶端的动作选单,选择递交管理方法。好了,现在开始吧!

参考书: C.K. Prahalad and Venkatram Ramaswamy - The Future of Competition [中译本《消费者王朝:与顾客共创价值》,机械工业出版社,2005] -


共同创造论坛
  Open Innovation Strategy
According to Johan Saunders of Sara Lee (in 'Handboek Communities', 2009, p 32-34), companies can use an 'open innovation' strategy to interact with both customers and other relations (e.g. suppliers) in order to discover ideas or solutions for impor...
     
 
  Value Co-creation in FMCG
Dear ladies and gentlemen, I am writing a research paper on 'Value co-creation in fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and its impact in reducing product cannibalization'. Your contribution to this topic will be of value to this paper and will be...
     
 
  Some Technical Tools for Co-creation
Using artificial intelligence languages like Lisp, Prolog one can build a database of an expert system in which users of service enter the problem to start a chain.
The others to add on to it would be other users and technical expe...
     
 
  Internal and External Views and Values of Co-creation
Because the term creation is involved, it invokes parenthood or patent hood. Depending on the view and value of the perceived creator. If an organization were to ask their customers what product or service they would like to see or have in the forese...
     
 
  Implementing Co-creation Internally?
What would possibly happen if co-creation were implemented within the firm, looking at management as the provider of "products" - business directions, empowerment, etc. And the employees as the users of these "products" - designing how directi...
     
 
  Co-creation also in Health Care!
In services sector like health care, the patient's values and choice of treatment desired by him should be given due regard. The treatment plan should be discussed with him to ensure compliance and successful outcome....
     
 
  Combination of Inside-out and Outside -in
Co-creation is the combination of inside-out and outside-in strategy. Good, but not easy in the real world....
     
 
  How to Figure Out the Right Custormers?
Refering to the above steps in the Co-creation process, how should we select customers under Kraljic model, how should we define the factor of matrix?...
     
 
  How to Start with Co-Creation?
We are a flour mill focused on high-end customers who use wheat flour. Our main strategy is tailor-made flour for the companies that have some particular requirement and are willing to pay for the requirement. How should we start co-creation to enfor...
     
 
  Co-creation in Services has Strategic Value
I work for a company in the service business. Only early last year we started to implement CEM (Customer Experience Management) methods. However the recession has hit us extremely hard and the company is fighting for its life now.
We will survi...
     
 
  Co-creation in Service Sector
How does co-creation apply to the service sector? Any examples?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 共同创造 高级帐户
  Co-creation is Real: Facebook Example
Co-creation is real and here now. Take Facebook: infrastructure supplied by company, content supplied by market. The key to successful co-creation is identifying and engaging the right customer group. Every product and service has a group of h...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Co-Creation 高级帐户
 

Four Principles for Co-Creation

In their article Building the Co-Creative Enterprise (Harvard Business Review, October 2010), Venkat Ramaswamy and Francis Gouillart argue that all ...
Usage (application)Building a Co-Creative Enterprise
 
 
 

Ways of Collaborating with Customers

In Prahalads two recent books, The New Age of Innovation (2008) and The Future of Competition: Co-creating Unique Value with Customers (2004), he sho...
Usage (application)Value Co-Creation, DART Model
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the last decade. These recent inno...
Usage (application)Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

Approaches to Understand your Customer's Needs

In order to transform your customers experience and to better understand your customers needs, it is helpful to construct a hypothetical c...
Usage (application)Customer Targeting, Customer Needs Identification, Customer Behavior
 
 
 

DART Model Example: Nike/Apple

In the article Co-Creating Value Through Customers Experiences: the Nike Case by Venkat Ramaswamy (Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2008), th...
Usage (application)Co-Creating Value
 
 
 

Classes of Innovation | Sources of Innovation

TWO CLASSES OF INNOVATION
Innovation can be triggered or enabled by two broad classes:
  1. KNOWLEDGE PUSH: Innovation triggered...
    Usage (application)Innovation, Creativity, Organizational Innovativeness, Lateral Thinking, Out of the Box Thinking, Blue Ocean Strategy
 
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through Iterative Rapid-cycle Prototyping

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application)Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 

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比较: Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]  |  Customer Relationship Management[顾客关系管理]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]  |  Outsourcing[外包]  |  3C's  |  Marketing Mix[营销组合]  |  Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的营销组合]  |  Relationship Marketing[关系营销]  |  Bottom of the Pyramid[金字塔底层]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Strategic Intent[战略意图]  |  Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]


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