Value Chain Framework
(Porter)

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分析企业价值创造相关联的各项经营活动。 Michael Porter的Value Chain Framework[价值链架构]解析。 (‘85)

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Michael Porter的Value Chain Framework[价值链架构]是一项用来分析与价值创造和竞争优势培育相关联的各项企业活动的管理模型。


价值链上的各项活动

  • Value Chain[价值链]架构模型主要活动(一线运营功能)
    • 进货物流Inbound Logistics)。 包括接收、入库、库存控制、运输规划等。
    • 制造运营(Operation。 包括加工、包装、组装、设备维护、测试以及其他所有将资源输入转变为产品输出的价值创造活动。
    • 出货物流(Outbound Logistics。 此项活动目的是使终端产品送抵消费者,包括 入库、订单实现、运输、分销管理,等等。
    • 市场营销(Marketing and Sales。 包括一系列促使消费者购买产品的活动: 渠道选择、广告、市场促进、销售、定价、零售管理,等等。
    • 售后服务(Service。 包括维持和提高产品价值的一系列活动: 用户支持、维修服务、安装、培训、备用件管理、升级,等等。
  • 支持活动(行政功能及其他企业运营环节)
    • 采购(Procurement。 采购物项包括原材料、服务、零备件、建筑及机器,等等。
    • 技术发展(Technology Development。 支持价值链上各项活动的技术发展, 例如: 研发、流程自动化、设计及再设计。
    • 人力资源管理(Human Resource Management。 包括招募、发展培训(教育)、人力资源保持、员工及管理人员薪酬回报,等等。
    • 企业基础建设(Firm Infrastructure。 包括企业一般管理、规划管理、质量管理、以及法律、财务、会计、公共事务等各项管理活动。

基于价值链的成本优势

企业能够通过以下两个手段产生创造成本优势:

  • 减少单项价值创造活动的成本;
  • 对价值链进行重新配置。

值得注意的是,成本优势不仅可以通过减少主要活动的成本获得,同样也可以通过减少支持活动的成本获得。 今天,已经有越来越多的公司通过使用信息技术获得成本优势。


对价值链进行定义之后,就可以通过对价值创造各项活动成本的分摊来进行成本分析。 Porter列出了10个与价值链活动紧密相关的成本动因(Cost Drivers

  1. 经济规模(Economies of Scale)。
  2. 企业学习(Learning)。
  3. 能力运用(Capacity Utilization)。
  4. 各活动之间的联结(Linkages among Activities)。
  5. 战略事业单元之间的相互关系(Interrelationships among Business Units)。
  6. 垂直一体化的程度(Degree of Vertical Integration)。
  7. 市场进入的时间(Timing of Market Entry)。
  8. 企业的成本领先或差异化政策(Firms of Policy of Cost or Differentiation)。
  9. 地理位置(Geographic Location)。
  10. 制度化因素(政策规定、工会势力、税收,等等)。

企业如果较之竞争对手更好地控制以上成本动因,就能够获得成本优势。 如前所说,企业还可以通过重组价值链来获得成本优势, 重组意味着价值链结构的变化,如: 新的生产流程、新的分销渠道、或者不同的销售方法。


通常,公司的价值链往往与其他价值链相联系,并成为一个更大的价值链的一部分。 创造企业的竞争优势,还取决于企业对这个更大的价值链的分析和管理能力。 这就是运筹学上的 供应链管理(Supply Chian Management。 有些人更认为,或许用另外一个词来描述价值链更为准确,即 价值网络(Value Networks


参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Advantage [中译本《竞争优势》,华夏出版社,2005] -


价值链架构论坛
  价值链的应用?活动与联系?
价值链上有两类活动,即主要活动支持活动。我能够背出这两类活动的所有构成部分,但我却难于应用它们。这两类活动之间存在着怎样的联系?...
     
 
  价值链与供应链管理?
供应链管理(SCM)与价值链管理(VCM)之间是什么关系?它们是如何相互依赖的?谢!...
     
 
  Combining Value Chain Analysis with Benchmarking to Analyze Competitive Advantage
How can value chain analysis and benchmarking be jointly used as tools for assessing the competitiveness of a company?
Could you give an example?...
     
 
  10 Decision Areas of Operation Management (Heizer)
Heizer wrote there are 10 decision areas of operation Management:
1. Goods and Services Design, 2. Quality Management, 3. Process and Capacity Design, 4. Location, 5. Layout Design, 6. Human Resources and Job Design, 7. Supply Chain Management, ...
     
 
  Procurement in the Value Chain Approach
For long the value chain approach by Michael Porter and as advanced by Peter Hines has placed procurement on the periphery, bundling it with general administration among other things.
Today, with threats of resource depletion, increased interve...
     
 
  Developing Green Value Chains
Developing green business strategies in value chains is a new trend to maximize the competitive advantages in terms of minimizing cost within the organizational value chain....
     
 
  Value Chain in Legal Services
How can a value chain be incorporated in law firms? What are the primary and support activities in such legal services?...
     
 
  Value Chain versus Diamond Model
Hi, can anyone explain in a few words what is the main difference between Porter's Diamond and Value Chain models?...
     
 
  Value Chain Analysis in Textile Industry
I am interested in the value chain analysis in textile industry of Uzbekistan to penetrate the EU market. I know that textile has a good opportunities in Uzbekistan, because the availability of raw materials: cotton, yarn and fibers is really improve...
     
 
  Comparing Value Chain and 7S Model
Hi! I am writing an assignment on a manufacturing company and used both Porter's value chain analysis and McKinsey's 7S framework as internal analysis of the company.
Can someone kindly tell me who to compare these 2 modules to come up with the ...
     
 
  Value Chain for Services Industry
I have read somewhere, that this model is not applicable for services industry, is it true? And does anybody know, if possible, a good model for strategic management for services industry? Thank you!...
     
 
  Value Chain in Research and Technology
Is there anyone having practice or insight on value chain specifically for research and technology?...
     
 
  Order Management in Porters Value Chain?
How do I segregate and fit in order management (not order fulfillment ) in Porters list of primary processes? Does it belong in marketing and sales?...
     
 
  Value Chain and Competitive Advantage Report
I know that a report on value chain and competitive advantage of the Public Sector in Lebanon was performed in 1999 upon request of the Prime Minister Salim El Hoss. Where can i find this report? Thank you in advance....
     
 
  Is Value Chain Analyse Only A Tool??
We study the value chain framework in the marketing plan as a situation analyzing tool. Some say that this can be used as a strategic tool. If we use primary activities of this to enhance the competitive advantages it is very similar to using integra...
     
 
  Role of Information Systems in Value Chain
How does Porter's value chain model help a business to use information systems for competitive advantage?...
     
 
  Value Chain Narrow Minded
Porters value chain is very good at explaining how a product adds value throughout the whole process starting from procurement and ending with reaching the end user. Supporting activities also add value to the product, though indirectly. Value chain ...
     
 
  Value Chain vs. Credit Crunch
In spite of todays credit crunch crisis, the Value Chain model in my experience proved to be one of the most valuable tool, if not THE most valuable, to remedy the economical downturn.
The major benefits of developing a realistic and sound Valu...
     
 
  Value Chain Analysis is practical
Even after all these years I find the Value Chain model of Porter still one of the better, practical tools to analyse a process, its costs and its added value(s). Obviously the standard model has to be adapted for a given industry, for a given compan...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 价值链架构 高级帐户
  How to Deal with Conflicts Between Marketing and Operations
Shapiro recognized several reasons for the conflicts between marketing and operations teams:
  • CAPACITY MANAGEMENT AND LONG-TERM SALES PROJECTIONS: Operations teams are constrained in their ability to flexibly adjust the (long-te...
     
 
  Value Chains and Industries
Interestingly, different industries often emphasize different activities in the value chain. For example, retailers traditionally focus on inbound and outbound logistics and procurement, while manufacturing companies might focus on oper...
     
 
  How to apply the value chain? Activities and Linkages
The value chain has two types of activities which are the primary activities and the support activities. I can remember all the elements in these two activities. However I have difficulty in applying them. Are there any linkages between...
     
 
  Value Chain and SCM?
What is the relationship between Supply Chain Management and Value Chain Management? How are they interdependent??...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Value Chain (Porter) 高级帐户
 

The Added-Value Chain Model

The Added-Value Chain model proposes to add an expanded set of activities to the original Value Chain concept by Porter. It incorporates the strength...
Usage (application)3 more Primary and 1 more Supporting Activity Added to Porter's Model
 
 
 

Good Value Chain Questions to Ask

To more deeply understand your Value Chain, these are a few interesting questions you can ask yourself:
- What are the recent / major c...
Usage (application)Optimizing your Supply Chain
 
 
 

Process Classification Framework

A company's activities or processes classification is mostly based on subjective criteria, experience and sensitivity of the management. In 1992, The ...
Usage (application)Alternative to Porter's Value Chain Analysis
 
 
 

Reported Benefits of Value-chain Initiaves

A survey by G. Taninecz Forging the Chain in Industry Week (Dec. 21, 2004) indicated the following major benefits of Value Chain Management:...
Usage (application)Value Chain Advantages
 
 
 

Implementing Added-Value Chain Model

According to Wayne McPhee and David Wheeler in the article Making the Case for the Added-Value Chain (Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2006), ...
Usage (application)Implementation
 
 
 

How to Design a Value Chain?

Designing or improving a value chain is not easy. Here are five bullet points to get started:
1. Begin by identifying the primary and supporting ...
Usage (application)Supply Chain Design
 
 
 

Online Value Chain

In Michael Porter's view, traditional firms have a chance to profit from deploying modern IT infrastructure and upgrade their Value Chains to i...
Usage (application)Use of Internet / IT
 
 
 

10 Decision Areas of Operation Management (Heizer)

According to Heizer and Render, there are 10 decision areas of Operation Management (each having typical issues):
1. Goods and Services Design Usage (application)Operations Management
 
 
 

List of Major Value Chain Obstacles

Although the Value Chain approach can be effective, there are major obstacles underlying application of SCM, such as:
1. Organizational Ba...
Usage (application)Pitfalls in Implementing Value Chain Management
 
 
 

Innovating by Reconsidering Value Delivery

When innovating their business model, companies need to reconsider their value proposition from all perspectives. One of the perspectives is how compa...
Usage (application)Fundamental Innovation
 
 
 

Remember to Focus your Improvement Efforts?

Very often organizations consider continuous improvement as committing on improvement efforts, and thus creating projects to implement them, in all ar...
Usage (application)Achieve More With Less, Kaizen, BPR, JIT, Lean, Value Chain
 
 
 

Three Reasons for Dysfunctional Buyer - Supplier Relationships

Roloff, Alnder and Nayier (2015) did research on the conditions for (un)successful buyer-supplier relationships and found that these relation...
Usage (application)Supply Chain Management, Purchasing, Alliances, Partnerships, Supply Chain Relations
 
 
 

Value Networks

Today value chains have become value networks. In a lot of industries ranging from software to manufacturing the boundaries are constantly blurring. E...
Usage (application)Value Chain versus Value Network
 
 

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比较: Porter Five Forces[五力模式]  |  Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]  |  Diamond Model[钻石模型]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  Organizational Configurations[组织构型]  |  3rd Party Logistics[3PL,第三方物流]  |  Outsourcing[外包]  |  Just-in-time[即时生产]  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  Vertical Integration[垂直整合]  |  Horizontal Integration[横向整合]  |  Vendor Managed Inventory[供应商管理库存]  |  Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]


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