Five Competitive Forces
(Porter)

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由外而内的企业经营战略。 Michael Porter的Five Competitive Forces[五力模式]解析。

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 Five Competitive Forces[五力模式] (Porter) 什么是五力模式? 释义

Porter的五力模式(Five Competitive Forces)是一个由外而内的企业经营战略工具,用以对企业结构的吸引度(价值)进行分析。 企业的竞争力分析实际上就是对这五种竞争力量进行辨认:

  1. 新进入者的威胁(Entry of competitors)。 新竞争者进入市场的难易程度,有无市场进入障碍存在。
  2. 替代产品或服务的威胁(Threat of substitutes)。 产品或服务是否很容易被替代,尤其是廉价品。
  3. 客户议价能力(Bargaining power of buyers)。 客户的市场地位和力量, 以及客户的订货数量。
  4. 供应商议价能力(Bargaining power of suppliers)。 供应商的市场地位和力量, 是否还有潜在供应商存在,或者还是有限的供应商在垄断经营。
  5. 行业现有竞争状况(Rivalry among the existing players)。 现有市场上是否存在强有力的竞争对手。 从力量和规模上来看,是否有占据支配地位的竞争者,还是所有竞争者一律平等。

此外,有时候还应加入第六种力量:

  1. 政府(Government)

Porter的竞争力模式是最为常用的战略工具之一, 它的有效性已经为大量的实际运用所证明。 Porter模型的独特有力之处在于由外而内的战略思考方式。


新进入者的威胁:

  • 经济规模。
  • 资金/投资需求。
  • 故可转换成本。
  • 经销渠道的可进入性。
  • 技术支持的可能性。
  • 品牌忠诚度。 有无忠诚顾客?
  • 现有竞争对手采取报复性措施的可能性。
  • 政府规则。 新进入者是否会得到政府补贴?

替代产品或服务的威胁:

  • 产品或服务的质量。 替代品是否质量更好?
  • 客户购买替代品的可能性和积极性。
  • 替代品的相对价格和性能。
  • 转换使用替代品的成本。 替代转换是否很容易?

供应商议价能力:

  • 供应商集中程度。 市场上有大量的供应商,还是只有少数几个占支配地位的供应商? 比较: Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]
  • 品牌。 供应商的品牌很响吗?
  • 供应商的收益率。 供应商是否被迫使提高价格?
  • 供应商是否有前向威胁的可能 (例如:品牌生产商建立自己的零售网点)。
  • 客户是否有后向威胁的可能。
  • 质量和服务的角色地位。
  • 本行业是否是供应商的核心顾客群。
  • 转换成本。 供应商是否能够轻易转至新客户。

客户议价能力:

  • 客户的集中程度。 行业内存在大量供应商的同时,是否只有少数几个占支配地位的买家?
  • 差异化。 市场产品是否标准化?
  • 客户的利润率。 客户是否被迫提供低价?
  • 质量和服务的角色地位。
  • 行业的前向和后向整合威胁。
  • 转换成本。 客户是否很容易变更供应商?

行业现有竞争强度:

  • 竞争结构。 如果行业内的竞争者很多,且规模不大,处在同等竞争地位上,那么竞争将不断加剧。 反之,如果行业内有一个独占鳌头的市场领袖,那么同行竞争就不会那么激烈。
  • 产业结构成本。 高固定成本的行业鼓励经营者满负荷生产以尽可能削减产品价格。
  • 产品差异化程度。 部分行业(如煤、钢)一直就是典型的高度竞争行业。
  • 转换成本。 当客户转换较高时,竞争则相应较弱。
  • 战略目标。 如果竞争对手采取侵略性成长战略,行业竞争就会加剧。 反之,在一个相对比较成熟的行业内部,如果竞争对手的战略目标仅仅是“分一杯羹”,那么行业竞争就会相对较弱。
  • 退出障碍。 如果退出行业存在的障碍较大时,竞争者则可能不顾一切加剧竞争。

五力模式的优势 优点

五力模式的局限

  • 运用五力模式时, 千万不能忽略、低估组织(现有)优势的重要性,即自内而外战略(Inside-out Strategy。 参见: Core Competence[核心竞争力]
  • 五力模式是为单个企业的行业竞争分析而设计, 它没有考虑到组织之间的协同效应与依赖关系,所以不适用于投资组合较为复杂、规模较大的企业。 参见: Parenting Advantage[母合优势]
  • 仅从理论角度来看,五力模式丝毫没有说明这样一种可能性,就是因为竞争的存在而使行业变得更有吸引力。
  • 而另一些人则认为,由于市场环境瞬息万变,企业更需要灵活的、动态的、随机应变的竞争战略。 参见: Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]
  • 有时,放弃对现有市场进行选择分割,转而创造一个全新的市场是完全有可能的。 参见: Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]

《竞争战略》一书概要

  • 第一部分,Porter分析了行业结构(五力)、讨论了三种一般性竞争战略(总成本领先战略、专一化战略、差异化战略),为竞争分析、竞争运作提出了一个非常有效的框架。在此框架内,企业能够有效制定客户战略与供应商战略,分析行业结构(战略集团、战略图表、迁移壁垒)与行业演变(行业生命周期、行业演变过程)。
  • 第二部分,Porter具体讨论了不同行业环境下的竞争战略。 例如: 四分五裂的行业(没有真正的市场领袖)、新型行业、成熟行业、夕阳行业以及全球化行业。
  • 第三部分,Porter讨论了根据不同的战略企业所应该采取的战略决策。 例如: 垂直整合(前向一体化、后向一体化、战略合作)、容量扩展以及进入新兴行业/注入新业务。

参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Strategy [中译本《竞争战略》,华夏出版社,2005] -


五力模式论坛 帮助
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For example, if I am doing a five force analysis on supermarkets, in the competitive rivalry do I name other superm...
     
  The Conclusion based on the Five Forces Model
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  Substitution in the Five Forces Model
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  There are More than Porter's 5 Forces!
We also have other forces that operate together with Porters model. For example Government, Society and natural phenomena. These other three factors can be a threat or an opportunity to any business venture:
- Government with its legal policie...
     
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最佳实践 - 五力模式 高级帐户
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Five Forces (Porter) | Five Forces Analysis 高级帐户
 

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In his article called "Strategy and the Internet" (HBR, March 2001) M.Porter takes his Industry Structure framework one step further and argues...
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Five Forces in knowledge firms

In an article in the Journal of Business Strategy (Vol. 26, no.4, 2005) Norman Sheenan makes a few interesting observations if Porter's Five Forces an...
Usage (application)Knowledge-intensive Firms
 
 

Five Forces e-Banking

In an article in Services Marketing Quarterly (2006, Vol. 28 Issue 2), Alan D.Smith writes that strategically, the use of the Internet is lowering ...
Usage (application)Online Banking
 
 

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比较: Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  The Value Net[价值网], Coopetition[合作竞争]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  Resource-Based View[企业资源观]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  Organizational Configurations[组织构型]  |  3C's  |  Diamond Model[钻石模型]  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]  |  Vertical Integration[垂直整合]  |  Horizontal Integration[横向整合]


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