Diamond Model[钻石模型]和Clusters[集群]
(Michael Porter)

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了解一个国家在全球博弈中竞争地位。 Porter Michael的Diamond Model[钻石模型]解析。 Clusters[集群]。 (‘98)

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什么是Diamond Model[钻石模型] ? 释义

Porter研究国家竞争优势的钻石模型(Diamond Model),为了解一个国家在全球环境下的竞争优势提供了一个有效方法。 该模型也可以用于其他地域范围(如地区)的竞争力比较。


传统国家优势

传统的经济理论认为,影响一个国家或地区的比较优势的主要因素有:

  1. 土地
  2. 区位
  3. 自然资源(矿产,能源)
  4. 劳动力
  5. 人口规模。

由于以上5个因素几乎不能为外力所影响,所以在认识国家经济发展机会这一问题上,传统经济学的观点是相当消极的继承性观点)。


集群(Clusters)

Porter认为,持续缓慢的工业增长已经很难在上述继承性因素的基础之上求得新的发展。 相反,大量占有这些因素,事实上恰恰在破坏一国的竞争优势! 他引入了一个新的概念——集群(Clusters),即群集在某一特定地区、互相联系的公司企业、供货商、相关产业以及研究机构,等等。


这些集中在一起的互相联系的公司企业、供货商、服务提供商以及相关科研机构, 它们聚集于同一地域,将丰沛的资源和产能汇聚到一起,达到不可比拟的最高峰值,使它们获得其他地区甚至全球范围内所独有的竞争优势,从而在某一行业占据关键位置。 Porter认为,集群可以从三个方面影响企业竞争力:

  • 它们可以提高集群内企业的生产效能。
  • 它们能够推动集群内的创新活动。
  • 它们能够促进集群内产生新的商机。

美国的硅谷(计算机)、荷兰的鹿特丹(物流)、印度的班加罗尔(软件外包)、美国的好莱坞(电影制作)、法国的巴黎(时尚用品),都是非常著名的集群典范。


根据Porter的研究,国家竞争优势是由集群内的公司企业通过4个互相交联的因素和活动来实现的, 而这些因素是完全能够被政府前摄(Pro-active影响的。


Porter钻石国家互相交联的竞争优势高级因素

  1. 战略、结构与竞争程度。 整个世界无时无刻不处于动态之中, 直接竞争迫使企业必须不断创新,持续提高生产效率。
  2. 需求条件。 如果顾客的需求旺盛、要求苛刻,必然导致企业不断通过创新产品、优质产品持续提高其竞争能力。
  3. 相关支持性产业。 上游或下游相关产业的空间接近度有助于企业信息交换,从而促进企业持续交换创新理念。
  4. 生产要素。 不同于传统观念,Porter认为生产力进步的“关键要素”(或者说特殊要素)不是来源于历史继承,而是来源于自主创造。 特殊要素指的是那些有技能的劳动力、资金以及基础设施条件,等等。 非关键要素或者说一般要素如普通劳动力、原材料,它们可以被任何企业获得,所以不会产生任何持续的竞争优势。 然而,那些特殊要素却因牵扯到大量的、持续的投资, 它们更难以复制。 正是这些要素在创造竞争优势,因为只有当它们不能够被轻易复制,它们才真正有价值。

钻石模型中的政府角色

政府在钻石模型扮演的是催化剂和挑战者的角色。 它鼓励甚至推动企业不断壮大竞争雄心、提高竞争表现。 它鼓励企业提高经营绩效、刺激市场对新产品的需求、关注特殊生产要素的创造,并通过限制企业间的直接合作、加强反垄断措施来刺激市场竞争。


国家竞争优势

在对10个国际贸易大国进行研究之后, Porter在他的《国家竞争优势》(The Coimpetitive Advantage of Nations)一书中引入了钻石模型。 这本书是第一本基于生产力要素研究国家竞争力的著作, 而且与传统的比较优势(如自然资源、劳动力)观点迥异。 研究政府经济学的战略家们确实应该将它作为必读书, 对企业宏观经济环境感兴趣的企业战略家们也有必要读一读它。


参考书: Michael Porter - The Competitive Advantage of Nations [中译本《国家竞争优势》,华夏出版社,2002] -


钻石模型和集群论坛
  Effects of Setting up Industry Clusters in a Country
What are the advantages (positive effects) and disadvantages (negative effects) of establishing a strategic focus for a sector / industry (a cluster) for a country? Thanks for your ideas....
     
 
  How to Integrate the Cluster in the Company?
It is said that clusters are a tool to incorporate new links in the supply chain. What are the steps to make a good clustering in the industry? And in what way can we establish such new links into the production chain?...
     
 
  What makes Clusters Start at some Place? How are Clusters Initiated?
In another discussion we have found the main success factors of clusters. But what actually makes them start? How are clusters initiated?
1. Is it by fluke (luck)? Some particular f...
     
 
  Contribution of Diamond Model to International Research
How did the Diamond Model contribute to international research? Porter is usually talking about nations...!? Thanks for your help......
     
 
  Diamond Model versus WTO (World Trade Organisation)
Liberalization of barriers to trade impacts the viability of the Diamond Model especially for emerging market countries or weak countries in terms of bargaining power in trade negotiations.
I think the model works better for powerful nati...
     
 
  Flower Industry in Kenya
Can someone help me with more information in regards to the Kenyan flower industry and how it is interlinked with the diamond model....
     
 
  The Contribution of Government
I think that the contribution of government depends on the nature of economy. In a liberal economy like the USA the contribution of government is eliminated. In Tunisia the Diamond model was used to ameliorate the competitiveness of the agriculture a...
     
 
  Ugly Side of Nigerian Business
Organisations are more concerned with being seen as productive and how large the profits are than ensuring overall national productive efficiency. Clusters are not existent and cut throat competition is the name of the game. Basically when a nation l...
     
 
  Governments' Role in Comparative Advantage
I believe that governments have a very significant role in shaping the competitiveness of the nation through setting up key policies, promoting the right set of values, and providing the appropriate level of capital. For example, the country where ...
     
 
  Nation Advantages and Firm's Advantages
How does a firm strategy and structure help to promote the nation advantage against other nations?
I'm being told that when a foreign firm wants to enter a particular country, it has to look if it can take advantage of any present cluster. But, ...
     
 
  China's Labor Cost Advantage
Many people believe (as I did) that China has a clear cost advantage in manufacturing from cheap labor. Not so according to Research conducted with funding from the All...
     
 
  Membership Organisations
Can a membership organisation be a cluster? There is a taste in the UK for governmental sponsored clusters to evolve into membership organisations. I would proposes that they cease to be clusters once they formalise this link. Thoughts????...
     
 
  Clusters and Knowledge Economy
Put simply, clusters are geographically close groups of interrelated specialized organizations. Two main historic reasons for industrial clusters were: easy knowledge exchange and the availability of skilled labor. I believe the arrival of th...
     
 
  Chance in Diamond Model
Porter defines Chance events as the ones that have little to do with circumstances in a nation and are largely outside of the control of firms. Chance events could be significant shifts in exchange rates, wars or decisions taken by foreign government...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 钻石模型和集群 高级帐户
  Success Factors of Economic Clusters
Economic clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions in a particular field that are present in a nation or region...
What makes economic clus...
		                            
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Diamond Model and Clusters 高级帐户
 

Clusters in Europe and the USA

You can find more info on Clusters and Policies in the European Cluster Obs...
Usage (application)National data, policies
 
 
 

How can Companies Reinforce and Benefit from Clustering?

1. Create pressures for innovation (if possible leveraging the advantage of the home nation)
2. Seek out the most capable competitors as motivato...
Usage (application)Company Agenda in Clustering
 
 
 

Clusters in Economically Less Developed Countries (ELDCs)

Studies conducted by UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) and academics on the role and characteristics of clusters in economic...
Usage (application)Cluster Research, Best Practices of Clustering
 
 
 

Corporate Social Responsibility and the Diamond Model

Recently, Porter (with Kramer) wrote an article called "Strategy and Society", in which they argue that many Corporate Social Responsibility initiativ...
Usage (application)CSR Strategy
 
 

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比较: Porter Value Chain[价值链]  |  Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]  |  Porter Five Forces[五力模式]  |  The Value Net[价值网], Coopetition[合作竞争]  |  Bottom of the Pyramid[金字塔底层]  |  PEST Analysis[PEST分析]  |  SWOT Analysis[SWOT分析]  |  Business Process Simulation[商业流程仿真]  |  Benchmarking[标杆分析]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]


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