Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]
(Porter)

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高于行业水准。 Porter Michael的Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]解析。

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Competitive Advantage[竞争优势] - Porter

根据Porter的竞争优势(Competitive Advantage)模型,竞争性战略采取进攻性或防守型行动,为企业谋求在行业内的防御地位,从而成功应对各种竞争力量,并为企业赢得超额Return on Investment[投资回报]。 根据Michael Porter,这种行业水准之上的绩效表现就是企业可持续的竞争优势的基础。


竞争优势基本战略类型

  1. 成本领先战略(Cost Leadership
  2. 差异化战略(Differentiation

通过扩大或收缩这两项战略,则形成第三个竞争优势战略

  1. 聚焦集中战略(Focus

竞争优势第一战略: 成本领先(低成本优势)

  • 实现成本领先,意味着企业成为行业内的低成本制造者。
  • 尽管成本领袖依靠低成本实现竞争优势,但它在价格上也要达到平价水平,至少也应该结合使用差异化战略。
  • 如果超过一个公司致力于成为行业内的成本领导者,那将是一场灾难。
  • 价格领导优势往往通过经济规模来实现。

竞争优势第二战略: 差异化

  • 实现差异化,意味着企业在行业内占据独一无二、无人取代的地位,并且广泛地被顾客接受和欣赏。
  • 差异化企业也不能忽视其成本地位, 在不影响差异化战略的情况下, 企业应该尽可能降低成本; 在差异化领域,产品成本应该至少低于企业从买方手中收取的价格溢价。
  • 可以实现差异化的领域有: 产品、渠道、销售、市场、服务、企业形象,等等。

Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]第三战略: 聚焦集中

  • 实现聚焦集中,意味着企业成为某一细分市场或行业中的最佳企业。
  • 两个变形: 集中成本和集中差异化。

力争中游

  • 对于那些利润绩效低于行业平均水平的企业来说,这个方子是开给他们的。
  • 只要行业整体水平表现不错,即便是中游企业的利润回报也是比较诱人的。
  • 企业选择余地很小。
  • 对那些运用聚焦战略的企业来说,最危险的事情莫过于成功之后开始忽视他们所聚焦的对象。 他们必须寻找新的聚焦对象, 而不是放任他们的聚焦战略效能减弱。

《竞争策略》一书概要

  • 第一部分,Porter结合五力模型讨论分析了行业结构,通过提出三个最基本的竞争优势战略(总成本领先、差异化、聚焦集中),为企业提供了一个非常好的架构,进行竞争分析、开展竞争活动、制定针对买家和供货商的战略、进行行业结构分析(战略组、战略地图、运动障碍)以及预测行业周期(产品生命周期、进化过程)等。
  • 第二部分,Porter具体讨论了各种一般性行业环境下的竞争战略。 例如: 如四分五裂的行业(没有真正的市场领导者)、新兴行业、成熟行业、衰退行业以及全球化商业环境。
  • 第三部分,Porter讨论了公司企业可以采用的战略决策。 例如: 垂直整合(前向、后向、合作)、能力扩张、进军新行业等。

参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Strategy [中译本《竞争战略》,华夏出版社,2005] -

参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Advantage [中译本《竞争优势》,华夏出版社,2005] -


竞争优势论坛
  竞争优势的平衡
为实现竞争优势,关于如何运用低成本运营,差别化,集中战略这3种有效的战略,基本上很少有企业把这3点都作的很好。主要通过,低成本运营和集中,或者差别化和集中的组合来获得成...
     
 
  一般战略
根据波特的战略分类,以下这些都不是一般战略:
---构建/保持/收获/清除/问号/星号/金牛,它们都属于一般战略的结果
---获得/垂直整合,它们是实现一般战略的方法;<...
     
 
  Why are Firms Different? Why Successful Firms Differ?
It is an obvious fact that firms differ. However, according to Carroll (1993) it is important to distinguish between the questions why firms differ from why successful firms differ from a sociological point of view.
Based on differ...
     
 
  What are the Risks of a Differentiation Strategy?
What are the risks involved when using differentiation as a competitive strategy? Why?...
     
 
  Successful Companies: Only Three Rules Needed?
Raynor and Ahmed did a statistical study of a large amount of companies and discovered that just 3 seemingly easy rules are consistent with successful companies and their strategic choices:

1. Better Before Cheaper. Companies can ch...
     
 
  Focus your Efforts in Building Competitive Advantage
In any given company, there are hundreds of fields where you can improve. The key thing to do is to determine the value of taking certain measures / developing certain strategies in various fields.
In other words: what to go for?
1. ...
     
 
  Cost and Value in Analysis of Competitive Advantage: 2 Sides of the Same Coin?
COST and VALUE are words used to identify the same quality, but from different viewpoints. The producer/manufacturer concentrates on cost, while the consumer/customer looks at value.
From this analysis comes the amazing range of products that ar...
     
 
  Competitive Advantage or Die?
To all the sharks out there who seem to have missed the point of cooperation, sharpen your swords and keep them so!...
     
 
  Case studies in "Cost Leadership"
Are there any recent case studies to demonstrate how firms can compete on the basis of cost leadership?...
     
 
  Competitive Advantage in a Monopolistic Market?
Can Porter's competitive advantage work in monopolistic markets, such as utility companies where the product they sell is unique (water or electricity) and can't be sold by other parties?...
     
 
  Life Cycle Approach to Competitive Advantage
Rita Gunther McGrath and Ian C. MacMillan in MITSloan Management Review Vol 50 No 3 mention the term Transient Competitive Advantage. I looked up the term "transient" and it means "valid for a limited time". The authors see Competitive Advanta...
     
 
  Health/Fitness Club Industry Analysis
I am the Marketing consultant of a Health & fitness club in Maseru, the capital city of Lesotho. Within a radius of about 10 kilomitres, there are two more fitness clubs. I would like to get the guidelines on how to conduct my analysis as I want my c...
     
 
  4 Stages of Hypercompetition
D'Aveni argues sustainable competitive advantage is not really possible. He shows a mechanism that causes faster and faster erosion of competitive positions. D'Aveni's four stages of hypercompetition:
1) Advantage based on differentiatio...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 竞争优势 高级帐户
  Weaknesses of Porter's Three Basic Types of Competitive Advantage
Mouillot (2013) argues that although Porter's three basic types of Competitive Advantage are very useful with regard to research for competitive advantage, there are some limitations or disadvantages:
1. Missing Ethical Guidelines for S...
     
 
  How Can Logistics Help to Achieve a Competitive Advantage?
How can logistics (transport, warehousing, customer service, inventory control) contribute to a Competitive Advantage (CA) of an company? Thanks for your ideas......
     
 
  What is Competitive Advantage?
Is it in simple terms "to be better than your competitors"? Is this correct?...
     
 
  Changing from a Cost Leadership Strategy Into Differentiation
I'm wondering how enterprises which have a cost leadership strategy turn into a differentiation strategy. Please advise....
     
 
  10 Routes to Competitive Advantage
In todays lean, time starved world, competitive advantage is the way forward. I have produced the following 10 routes to competitive advantage to simplify the process especially for the small business owner. 1. People. 2. Method. 3.Pro...
     
 
  Competition versus Cooperation
Porter has undermined society with his over-emphasis on competition. Co-operation should be the driver of business and progressive companies are seeing this and ditching competition and Porter....
     
 
  Competitive Advantage in Tough Times
Does need to change, in tough times, imply that one has to do things different or different things? In times of tough business circumstances, the core of change mgt is best translated in a return to basics, to your USPs: Make all co-workers aware of...
     
 
  Stuck in the Middle?
Why is getting stuck in the middle (=mixing the 3 types of competitive advantage) so problematic? Could an intelligent mix of these 3 be preferable?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Competitive Advantage 高级帐户
 

Sustained Competitive Advantage

As claimed by M. Porter the only way to sustain a competitive advantage is to upgrade it over time to move to more sophisticated types.
<...
Usage (application)Industry Competitiveness
 
 
 

Not Generic Strategies...:

All the following categeories are NOT generic strategies according to Porter:
- Build / Hold / Usage (application)Pseudo Strategies!
 
 
 

Differentiation and 5 Forces

A differentiation strategy usually requires consistent investments in operative marketing, particularly in communication. But also it has been discuss...
Usage (application)Influence of Differentiation
 
 
 

Low-Cost Strategy

The main Risks of a Low-Cost Strategy are:
The cost leadership is not sustained, because of:
- competitors imitatating
- technolog...
Usage (application)Pitfalls
 
 
 

Focus Strategy

The main Risks of a Focus Strategy are:
1. The focus strategy is imitated
2. The target segment becomes structurally unattractive, be...
Usage (application)Pitfalls
 
 
 

Differentiation Strategy

Differentiation strategies tend to work best in following market circumstances:
- The needs and uses of buyers are diverse: the more dive...
Usage (application)When to apply
 
 
 

Extreme Customer Trust as a Source of Competitive Advantage

Many companies are already highlighting the importance of trustworthiness by setting and sustaining honest prices and providing reasonable services. A...
Usage (application)Competitive Advantage, CRM, Customer Loyalty, Customer Intimacy
 
 
 

The Key Role of Strategists in Creating Competitive Advantage

Most organizational performance theories assume that there are certain best practices, or best ways that are needed to outperform your rivals.
...
Usage (application)Business Strategy, Corporate Strategy, Competitive Advantage, Strategy Education
 
 
 

Knowledge as Competitive Advantage

In an interview of Tomas Friedman to Hani Iskander, former CEO of Chevron Middle East Ltd who was negotiating a partnership with Kuwait government, th...
Usage (application)The New Form of Advantange
 
 
 

Factors to Create a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

In HBR article What is strategy, Nov-Dec 1996, M. Porter discusses the critical factors that help to create a sustainable competitive advantage Usage (application)Porter's SCA Factors
 
 

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比较: Value Chain[价值链]  |  Value Disciplines[价值信条]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Rule of Three[三强鼎立法则]  |  Strategic Types[战略类型]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  Acquisition Integration Approaches[收购整合法]  |  Diamond Model[钻石模型]  |  Relative Value of Growth[增长相对价值]  |  Experience Curve[经验曲线]  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]


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