Vantaggio Competitivo
(Porter)

Centro di Conoscenza

   

La base per performare al di sopra della media in un determinato settore. Spiegazione del Vantaggio Competitivo di Michael Porter.

Indice

  1. Riassunto
  2. Forum
  3. Migliori Pratiche
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Risorse
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Vantaggio Competitivo - Porter Secondo il modello del Vantaggio Competitivo di Porter, una strategia competitiva agisce in maniera offensiva o difensiva per creare una posizione difendibile in un determinato settore, per fare fronte con successo alle forze competitive e generare un Return on Investment superiore. Secondo Michael Porter, la base, per avere performance sopra la media in un dato settore, è il vantaggio competitivo sostenibile.


2 tipi di Vantaggio Competitivo

  1. Leadership di Costo (basso costo)
  2. Differenziazione

Entrambi possono essere più ampi o più ristretti,  generando la terza strategia competitiva possibile:

  1. Focus o Concentrazione

Vantaggio Competitivo di Tipo 1: Leadership di Costo

  • Realizzare la Leadership di Costo significa che un'azienda sceglie di diventare il produttore a basso costo nel suo settore.
  • Un leader di costo deve realizzare la parità o almeno la prossimità nelle basi di differenziazione, anche se conta sulla leadership di costo per il suo vantaggio competitivo.
  • Se più di una azienda tenta di realizzare la Leadership di Costo, solitamente è un disastro.
  • Spesso è realizzato grazie ad economie di scala.

Vantaggio Competitivo di Tipo 2: Differenziazione

  • Realizzare la differenziazione significa che un'azienda cerca di essere unica nel proprio settore su alcune dimensioni ampiamente apprezzate dai compratori.
  • Un differenziatore non può ignorare la sua posizione di costo. In tutte le aree che non interessano la propria differenziazione dovrebbe provare a fare diminuire il costo; nell'area di differenziazione i costi dovrebbero  essere almeno più bassi del premium price che riceve dai compratori.
  • Le aree di differenziazione possono essere: prodotto, distribuzione, vendite, marketing, servizio, immagine, ecc.

Vantaggio Competitivo di Tipo 3: Focus o Concentrazione

  • Realizzare il Focus significa che un'azienda ha scelto di essere la migliore in un segmento o in un gruppo di segmenti.
  • 2 varianti: Focus di costo e Focus di differenziazione.

A metà

  • Questa, di solito, è una ricetta per raggiungere una redditività al di sotto della media del settore.
  • Eppure, è possibile realizzare profitti attraenti se e finchè, il settore nell'insieme, sarà molto attrattivo.
  • Manifestazione della mancanza di scelta.
  • Particolarmente pericoloso per accaniti promotori di questa strategia che poi cominciano a trascurare il loro focus. Devono cercare altre nicchie dove perseguire il Focus. Altrimenti possono compromettere la loro strategia di Focus.

Descrizione del libro  “Strategia competitiva„

  • Nella parte I, Porter discute l'analisi strutturale dei settori (con le cinque forze), delle tre strategie competitive in generale (Leadership di Costo, Focus e Differenziazione), offrendo una struttura eccellente per l'analisi dei concorrenti, le mosse competitive, la strategia verso compratori e fornitori, analisi strutturale all'interno dei settori (gruppi strategici, tracciati strategici, barriere di mobilità) e lo sviluppo del settore (ciclo di vita, processi evolutivi).
  • Nella parte II, Porter discute la strategia competitiva all'interno di vari ambienti generici del settore. Come: settori frammentati (senza un vero leader di mercato), settori emergenti, settori maturi, settori in declino e settori globali.
  • Nella parte III, Porter discute le decisioni strategiche che i business o le aziende possono prendere. Come: integrazione verticale (verso l'alto, il basso o in partnership), espansione della capacità e entrata in nuovi settori/business.

Referenza Bibliografica: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Strategy -

Referenza Bibliografica: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Advantage -


Vantaggio Competitivo Forum
  Strategie non Generiche…:
Secondo Porter le seguenti non sono strategie generiche:
- Costruire / Tenere /Raccogliere / Liquidare / Question...
     
 
  Why are Firms Different? Why Successful Firms Differ?
It is an obvious fact that firms differ. However, according to Carroll (1993) it is important to distinguish between the questions why firms differ from why successful firms differ from a sociological point of view.
Based on differ...
     
 
  What are the Risks of a Differentiation Strategy?
What are the risks involved when using differentiation as a competitive strategy? Why?...
     
 
  Successful Companies: Only Three Rules Needed?
Raynor and Ahmed did a statistical study of a large amount of companies and discovered that just 3 seemingly easy rules are consistent with successful companies and their strategic choices:

1. Better Before Cheaper. Companies can ch...
     
 
  Focus your Efforts in Building Competitive Advantage
In any given company, there are hundreds of fields where you can improve. The key thing to do is to determine the value of taking certain measures / developing certain strategies in various fields.
In other words: what to go for?
1. ...
     
 
  Cost and Value in Analysis of Competitive Advantage: 2 Sides of the Same Coin?
COST and VALUE are words used to identify the same quality, but from different viewpoints. The producer/manufacturer concentrates on cost, while the consumer/customer looks at value.
From this analysis comes the amazing range of products that ar...
     
 
  Competitive Advantage or Die?
To all the sharks out there who seem to have missed the point of cooperation, sharpen your swords and keep them so!...
     
 
  Case studies in "Cost Leadership"
Are there any recent case studies to demonstrate how firms can compete on the basis of cost leadership?...
     
 
  Competitive Advantage in a Monopolistic Market?
Can Porter's competitive advantage work in monopolistic markets, such as utility companies where the product they sell is unique (water or electricity) and can't be sold by other parties?...
     
 
  Life Cycle Approach to Competitive Advantage
Rita Gunther McGrath and Ian C. MacMillan in MITSloan Management Review Vol 50 No 3 mention the term Transient Competitive Advantage. I looked up the term "transient" and it means "valid for a limited time". The authors see Competitive Advanta...
     
 
  Health/Fitness Club Industry Analysis
I am the Marketing consultant of a Health & fitness club in Maseru, the capital city of Lesotho. Within a radius of about 10 kilomitres, there are two more fitness clubs. I would like to get the guidelines on how to conduct my analysis as I want my c...
     
 
  4 Stages of Hypercompetition
D'Aveni argues sustainable competitive advantage is not really possible. He shows a mechanism that causes faster and faster erosion of competitive positions. D'Aveni's four stages of hypercompetition:
1) Advantage based on differentiatio...
     
 

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Vantaggio Competitivo Corsi & Eventi


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Migliori Pratiche - Vantaggio Competitivo Premium
  Weaknesses of Porter's Three Basic Types of Competitive Advantage
Mouillot (2013) argues that although Porter's three basic types of Competitive Advantage are very useful with regard to research for competitive advantage, there are some limitations or disadvantages:
1. Missing Ethical Guidelines for S...
     
 
  How Can Logistics Help to Achieve a Competitive Advantage?
How can logistics (transport, warehousing, customer service, inventory control) contribute to a Competitive Advantage (CA) of an company? Thanks for your ideas......
     
 
  What is Competitive Advantage?
Is it in simple terms "to be better than your competitors"? Is this correct?...
     
 
  Changing from a Cost Leadership Strategy Into Differentiation
I'm wondering how enterprises which have a cost leadership strategy turn into a differentiation strategy. Please advise....
     
 
  10 Routes to Competitive Advantage
In todays lean, time starved world, competitive advantage is the way forward. I have produced the following 10 routes to competitive advantage to simplify the process especially for the small business owner. 1. People. 2. Method. 3.Pro...
     
 
  Competition versus Cooperation
Porter has undermined society with his over-emphasis on competition. Co-operation should be the driver of business and progressive companies are seeing this and ditching competition and Porter....
     
 
  Competitive Advantage in Tough Times
Does need to change, in tough times, imply that one has to do things different or different things? In times of tough business circumstances, the core of change mgt is best translated in a return to basics, to your USP’s: Make all co-workers aware of...
     
 
  Stuck in the Middle?
Why is getting stuck in the middle (=mixing the 3 types of competitive advantage) so problematic? Could an intelligent mix of these 3 be preferable?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Competitive Advantage Premium
 

Sustained Competitive Advantage

As claimed by M. Porter the only way to sustain a competitive advantage is to upgrade it over time – to move to more sophisticated types.
<...
Usage (application): Industry Competitiveness
 
 
 

Not Generic Strategies...:

All the following categeories are NOT generic strategies according to Porter:
- Build / Hold / Usage (application): Pseudo Strategies!
 
 
 

Differentiation and 5 Forces

A differentiation strategy usually requires consistent investments in operative marketing, particularly in communication. But also it has been discuss...
Usage (application): Influence of Differentiation
 
 
 

Low-Cost Strategy

The main Risks of a Low-Cost Strategy are:
The cost leadership is not sustained, because of:
- competitors imitatating
- technolog...
Usage (application): Pitfalls
 
 
 

Focus Strategy

The main Risks of a Focus Strategy are:
1. The focus strategy is imitated
2. The target segment becomes structurally unattractive, be...
Usage (application): Pitfalls
 
 
 

Differentiation Strategy

Differentiation strategies tend to work best in following market circumstances:
- The needs and uses of buyers are diverse: the more dive...
Usage (application): When to apply
 
 
 

Extreme Customer Trust as a Source of Competitive Advantage

Many companies are already highlighting the importance of trustworthiness by setting and sustaining honest prices and providing reasonable services. A...
Usage (application): Competitive Advantage, CRM, Customer Loyalty, Customer Intimacy
 
 
 

The Key Role of Strategists in Creating Competitive Advantage

Most organizational performance theories assume that there are certain “best practices”, or “best ways” that are needed to outperform your rivals.
...
Usage (application): Business Strategy, Corporate Strategy, Competitive Advantage, Strategy Education
 
 
 

Knowledge as Competitive Advantage

In an interview of Tomas Friedman to Hani Iskander, former CEO of Chevron Middle East Ltd who was negotiating a partnership with Kuwait government, th...
Usage (application): The New Form of Advantange
 
 
 

Factors to Create a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

In HBR article “What is strategy”, Nov-Dec 1996, M. Porter discusses the critical factors that help to create a sustainable competitive advantage Usage (application): Porter's SCA Factors
 
 

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