Outsourcing[外包]

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转移业务流程。 Outsourcing[外包]解析。

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外包

什么是外包? 释义

外包是一个战略管理模型,它是指一个公司将自己的某项业务流程转移到另一个公司。 换句话说,就是 让一个第三方服务商来执行公司日常的一项或多项业务功能。 对这个第三方服务商来说,就是内保(Insourcing)提供商的业务。 当一个公司的业务功能,本可以通过公司的内部力量来完成,却交给了公司外部组织来执行,该公司这时就采用了外包战略。


外包与转包(Subcontracting)的区别:转包着眼于具体的项目合同,而外包则是一种持续的战略行为。 外包既可以在同一地区,也可以在不同地区;既可以在同一国家,也可以在不同国家(离岸)。


外包的顶级形式甚至可能是,一个非常大的虚拟公司,它只有一名员工, 而这名员工就是公司老板本人。


为什么要将业务流程外包? 主要动机

外包最主要的动机是:

  1.  将组织力量集中于Core Competence[核心竞争力]上,使组织更富有竞争性。
  2. 降低成本,提高效率。
  3. 得以拥有其他特殊资源或能力。 比较: 3rd Party Logistics[3PL,第三方物流]
  4. 刺激、鼓励小企业发展、创新。

外包模式

现实中,至少有三种典型的外包模式:

  1. 共享服务中心(Shared Service Center)。 (如下所示)
  2. 企业分拆(Spin-Off)。 这一分拆的新公司为母公司的某一外包业务提供专门服务。
  3. 组织外外包(Outsourcing to an external organization)。 比较: Organization Chart[组织结构图]

外包的其他潜在优点

  • 不断更新地关注于核心业务。
  • 依靠专门力量,减小经营风险。
  • 提高客户满意度。
  • 为员工提供了更多的职业选择和机会。
  • 改善项目。
  • 改善服务。
  • 更新技能。
  • 保持技能。
  • 获得技能。
  • 吸收技术。
  • 提高成本、业绩等财物指标的清晰度。
  • 降低成本。
  • 运用金融工程学进行成本挥发管理。
  • 资产转换。
  • 资本投资回避。

外包术语表:


应用服务提供商(Application Service Provider,ASP)

ASP是提供计算机网络应用服务的企业, 如电子邮件服务、薪金流程管理、ERP应用等。


业务流程外包(BPO

业务流程外包是指对前台功能以及后勤服务实行外包,尤其是指外包那些由白领、文职人员的岗位工作, 例如会计、人力资源以及医疗编码和医疗转录等。


竞争性内包(Competitive Insourcing

竞争性内包是指企业内部员工与极富竞争性的第三方力量竞标企业某一具体业务的过程。 参见内包(Insourcing)。


委约生产(Contract Manufacturing)

委约生产是指将某项生产性工作外包给境内或境外的第三方。 被委托者拥有受理合约的必要设备设施及生产技术。


协力式外包(Co-Sourcing

协力式外包是指企业的业务功能又内部员工与拥有专业知识的外部力量共同完成,如咨询公司等。


设备管理(Facilities Management)

设备管理是一项具体的外包解决方案,是指客户选择某一外包提供商对其一项或多项设备的运行和维护进行负责。 比较: Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]


内包(Insourcing

内包是外包的一种应变措施,是指将外包功能完全交给企业的内部另一部门来执行,换句话说,就是藉由改善某一区域的营运来承担来自其它部门的工作。 在美国,该术语也被用来指那些在美投资的外资公司雇用美国本土员工。


近岸外包(Nearshoring)

近岸外包是指将业务外包给境内公司,其特点为距离短、联络方便、在相同或相近时区。


离岸外包(Offshoring

离岸外报是指将业务外包给境外公司。 将业务外包给近邻国家的公司有时候也会被视为近岸外包(参见上条)。


服务级别协议(Servic Level AgreementSLA

SLA是一份外包委托合同的附加文件(或单独合约),它规定了外包服务的类型、价值以及提供条件。 一般来讲,SLA是对服务质量的规定,如反应时间、有效性、速度,等等。


共享服务(Shared Services

共享服务是指将企业其它部门所共需的业务功能包给内部的一个拥有特别技能的部门或团队。 例如,制造公司的采购部门,就可能为公司的所有生产单位提供采购服务。 共享服务当然也可能外包给企业外的第三方。


外包论坛
  Combining Outsourcing with the Wisdom of the Crowd: Crowdsourcing
In the HBR of April 2013, K.J.Boudreau and K.R. Lakhani are writing about the concept of Crowdsourcing (C). According to them C is a recent development in which organizations use the crowd for problem solving, innovation, research and consultancy; it...
     
 
  Outsourcing SOX Acitvities
There are a lot of articles about SOX compliance in outsourcing.
How about outsourcing SOX acitvities? When you are outsourcing your SOX acitivities, are you still in control? Is it possible to do? What are the risks?...
     
 
  Keep Core Competencies or Become a Solution Provider
As speed in business transformation increases, management has to decide whether to:
- Remain a leader in core business areas, or
- Become a solution provider, integrating all necessary business talents.
Market and competition analysis ...
     
 
  Loss of Buyer's Competence due to Outsourcing
If you outsource something that you make today, you are probably a very competent buyer.
Some years later you may not have the competence to make this component or perform this activity anymore and (even worse) you may not even have enough knowl...
     
 
  Incentivised Outsourcing Contracts
I've been looking to see any proof that incentivised contracts in outsourcing really work i.e. do they actually increase quality or meet on-time delivery deadlines etc, etc? Anyone put any statistics onto this question?...
     
 
  Public Services Outsourcing
Given 35 years of both private and public sector experience, I am very cautious of embracing outsourcing as a panacea for reducing costs and increasing performance in public services. As experience has shown, when governments outsource public work...
     
 
  What is Outsourcing - Definition
Is the management or day-to-day execution of an entire business function by a third-party service provider. Outsourced services may by provided on or off premises in the same country, or in a separate country.
Outsourcing enables a compan...
     
 
  How to Maintain Control in Outsourcing (jobwork)
I am working on a outsourcing project witha textile company. Here the weaving process is outsourced to an external vendor. I need to know what are the various control measures one can use over the vendors in outsourcing. Please suggest. Thanks in adv...
     
 
  Shared Services Models and Theories
I'm doing a research on shared services in the public sector. Does anyone have info on the types of models and theories available in shared services?...
     
 
  Pricing of Outsourcing
Could someone advise how pricing is done in the outsourcing industry?...
     
 
  Outsourcing Customer Services
My experience is the bigger the company moving to outsourcing of customer service, the higher the risk in customer satisfaction. Offshoring increases the risk even more....
     
 
  What is Integral Outsourcing?
A new term, coming from the UK, is 'Integral Outsourcing', basically outsourcing the outsourcing.
In the past decennia, several (non-core) processes have been outsourced in many organizations. For example company canteens, catering, cleaning, an...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 外包 高级帐户
  How to Estimate Loss of Intellectual Property in Case of Outsourcing
I am working on the analysis of a product which is already being produced... Completely in-house in our company. My task is to draw a model in which effects of outsourcing are visible. I would like to know the effect on IP (intellectual property) as ...
     
 
  When to Outsource Innovation?
According to Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone in the article Outsourcing Innovation (Executive Adviser, November 2009), outsourcing research and development and the creation of new products can help companies to slash ...
     
 
  Disadvantages of Outsourcing
All the above mentioned benefits made me think: OK, but what are the limitations and disadvantages of outsourcing? I can think of these:
1. Less management control over the outsourced activities
2. Increased overhead costs (fo...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Outsourcing 高级帐户
 

Outsourcing Alternative: Insourcing

These outsourcing risks are the reasons why companies should first ponder on it before plunging in. In fact, a better alternative would be where your ...
Usage (application)Insourcing
 
 
 

Offshoring of Creative Work and Knowledge Work

I recommend the amusing and instructive case by management writer Stephen Brown in Harvard Business Review September 2008 about the question: Is hi...
Usage (application)The Future of High End Outsourcing
 
 
 

Benefits of Outsourcing Innovation

Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone (Outsourcing Innovation, Executive Adviser, November 2009) argue that outsourcing inn...
Usage (application)Improving Innovation Performance
 
 
 

Onshoring

In a recent article titled "How to Make Onshoring Work" by Aditya Pande (Harvard Business Review, March 2011), the author argues that many organiza...
Usage (application)Making Onshoring Work
 
 
 

Dimensions of Business Processes to Consider before Outsourcing

Researchers Deepa Mani, Anitesh Barua and Andrew B. Whinston have found that outsourcing arrangements stand a better chance of generating the desired ...
Usage (application)Determining Outsourcing Viability of a Process
 
 
 

When Should a Firm Consider to Outsource Innovation?

According to Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone in the article Outsourcing Innovation (Executive Adviser, November 2009)...
Usage (application)Outsourcing Best Practices, Innovation
 
 
 

List of Reasons for Offshoring

Increasingly, companies no longer perceive offshoring as a way of cost cutting only, but also as a growth strategy. Recent results of an ongoing surve...
Usage (application)Offshoring, Outsourcing, Best Practices
 
 
 

Traditional versus Transformational Outsourcing

Nowadays, we can distinguish two types of outsourcing: traditional and transformational outsourcing.
- T...
Usage (application)Cost Reduction versus Adaptability
 
 
 

Service Level Agreements and Service Level Management

In todays highly globalized and specialized business environment, characterized by frequent outsourcing of one or more business processes, terms like...
Usage (application)Effective BPO Management
 
 
 

Outsourcing Trends

In an article (How to be an Outsourcing Virtuoso) by Vinay Couto and Ashok Divakaran they mention 4 trends for outsourcing providers:
1. An Expa...
Usage (application)Outsourcing, Market Development
 
 

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比较:  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Vertical Integration[垂直整合]  |  Horizontal Integration[横向整合]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  Value Chain[价值链]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  Management Buy-out[管理者收购]  |  Acquisition Integration Approaches[收购整合法]  |  SWOT Analysis[SWOT分析]  |  Benchmarking[标杆分析]  |  3rd Party Logistics[3PL,第三方物流]  |  Vendor Managed Inventory[供应商管理库存]


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