Organizational Learning[OL,组织学习]

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Chris Argyris和Donald Schön的Organizational Learning[OL,组织学习]解析。 (‘78)

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Chris Argyris Organizational Learning[组织学习]

什么是组织学习? 释义

Chris Argyris和Donald Schön在1978年给组织学习(OL)所下的定义是: “诊断和改正组织错误”。 1985年,Fiol和Lyles对“学习”做了更为准确的定义,“通过汲取更好的知识,并加深理解,从而提高行动的过程”。 Dodgson对组织学习的描述是: 企业围绕自己的日常活动和企业文化,构建知识体系,补充知识技能以及组织例行公事的一种方式;组织通过广泛运用员工所掌握的各项技能,从而发展组织效能的一种方式。 (1993)。 Huber指出,如果信息交换时组织的潜在行为范围发生变化了变化,那么学习活动在这一变化过程中就已经产生了。


Dodgson指出,所谓学习型组织就是那些为了提高和最大化组织学习,而有目的地进行学习框架构建和战略设计的组织(1993)。 当下,学习型组织的概念日益盛行,因为越来越多的组织都意识到与时俱进、不断变革的重要性。 学习是一个动态概念,它强调的是组织的一种持续变革的特征。 现在,对于学习活动的关注重点已经从个人学习转移到了组织学习。 众所周知,学习是个人成长的要素, 学习对组织成长同样重要。 作为个人集合体的组织,必须以一种适当的形式、流程来保证组织学习,从而应对不断变化的环境。


当然,组织学习绝不仅仅是个人学习行为的总和(Dodgson,1993;Fiol & Lyles,1985) 。 当组织成员离开时,组织的学习能力并不会因此遭受损失。 组织学习会对组织记忆(Organizational Memory)发挥巨大的贡献作用。 因此,组织学习不仅会影响当前的组织成员,而且会对未来成员发生影响,这归功于通过组织学习所累积起来的组织历史、组织经验、组织规则以及组织故事。 “对于任何组织而言,创造一个学习型组织,仅仅是一半的挑战”(Prahalad & Hamel, 1994), 同等重要的是,要构建一个“非学习型组织”。这一貌似荒谬的概念言下之意是,一个学习型组织也必须要学会忘记部分历史。 学习活动正是在各种因素的冲突中产生的(Dodgson,1993)。
 

三种类型的组织学习(Argyris & Schön)

  1. 单循环学习(Single-Loop Learning。 单循环学习是指,发现并改正组织错误,使得组织能够保持当前政策,去实现既定目标。 根据Dodgson(1993),单循环学习可以被视作为一种将组织所需得知识、技能或规则植入组织,同时不改变组织现有形态特征的组织活动。 单循环学习亦被其他学者指称为“低层次学习”(Fiol & Lyles,1985)、“适应性学习”“复制式学习”(Senge,1990)、或“非战略性学习”(Mason,1993)。
  2. 双循环学习(Double-Loop Learning。 双循环学习是指,除了发现并改正组织错误外,并且对组织现有的规范、流程、政策以及目标提出异议和修正。 双循环学习包括对组织的学习基础、特殊能力、例行常规进行变革(Dodgson,1993)。 双循环学习亦被其他学者指称为“高层次学习”(Fiol & Lyles,1985)、“创造性学习”“拓展型学习”(Senge,1990)、或“战略性学习”(Mason,1993)。 根据Mason,战略性学习就是组织与所处环境相适的一种努力过程,在此基础之上,组织才能够充分占有各种资源,并以这些资源去追逐、拓展并实现组织目标 (1993:843)。
  3. 第二次学习(Deutero-learning)。 当组织知道如何执行单循环学习和双循环学习的时候,组织就开始了第二次学习的过程。 如果组织对于学习无意识的话,就不会有前两种学习。 “只有认识到无知,才会产生学习的动机”(Nevist et al,1995)。 这意味着在促进学习之前,需要找到学习导向、方式、流程以及结构等学习促进因素。 Nevis等人(1985)找到了七种学习方式和十种影响学习的促进因素。 例如,其中一项促进因素就是,找出目标业绩与真实业绩之间的差距。 认识到到这一差距后,组织就能够想到学习,以及想到创造适合学习的环境和流程。 这同样也会使组织意识到这样一个事实,冗长的积极反馈、或者是沟通交流事实上会阻碍组织学习(Argyris,1994)。

双循环学习与第二次学习都非常关心组织为什么要变革和如何变革,而单循环学习则被动接受变革,不做深层思考。 Dodgson指出,组织学习的类型还取决于组织学习所存在的不同组织部门。 不同的学习活动可能出现于不同的组织功能部门,如研发、设计、工程、制造、市场、行政、以及销售,等等。


组织学习论坛
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最佳实践 - 组织学习 高级帐户
  Why Apply Organizational Learning in Organizations?
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An organization must learn so that it can adapt to a changing environment.
 
   
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Organizational Learning 高级帐户
 

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