Mentoring[启导]

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以长期成长为目标的学习促进。 Mentoring[启导]解析。

投稿人: Guy Bloom

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Mentoring[启导]什么是启导? 释义

启导(Mentoring)是一种以长期成长为目标的学习促进。 生涯系统国际顾问公司(Career System International)总裁Beverly Kaye博士(2003)曾宣称,“每一个成功人士的背后,都隐藏着一个基本事实: 有一个人,在一些场合,以一些方式,关怀成功人士的成功者的成长与发展。这个人就是成功人士的启导者(Mentor)”。 在对启导者进行研究的时候,我们不难发现历史上许多成功者的背后都有一位启导者:

  • 维珍公司老板Richard Branson的启导者是素有廉价航空之父美誉的Freddie Laker爵士(商业)。
  • 亚历山大大帝的启导者是伟大的哲学家亚里斯多德(历史、政治)。
  • 好莱坞当红男星、《断臂山》男主角Heath Ledger的启导者是美国著名导演、影星Mel Gibson(影视)。
  • 环法自行车赛七连冠得主Lance Armstrong的启导者是环法赛的另一位历史巨星、比利时人Eddy Merckx(体育)。
  • 贝多芬和莫扎特的启导者是海顿(音乐)。
  • 亚瑟王的启导者是神秘的大法师梅林(传说)。

对于很多人来说,“非正式的启导是通过朋友、亲戚、熟人或陌生人进行的,是日常生活的一部分,因为帮助是我们人类最为普通的经验。”(Pegg,1999)


启导与文化

启导与文化尤为相关。美国传统的以职业培训为导向的启导教育,设计了“赞助者”(Sponsorship)这么个带有“父辈形象”特征的概念,在欧洲就很没有市场,因为它明显不适于自我督导、自我培训的需要。 欧洲人的“发展式启导”早已将启导的重点放在了“个人成长与学习”、“相互支持”上,他们似乎较乐意接受这种更为健康的启导概念。 但是,不管我们从哪一个角度来定义“启导”这个术语,这个概念中心都包含着“强烈的学习主题”(Egan, 2002),并且扮演着“变革催化剂”的角色(Johnson,1999)。


专业启导

专业启导师们对启导有着独到的见解,“启导就是基于被启导人的才智与专长去创造一个未来。。。为此,启导师自由地提供战略层面的建议和意见”(Zeus & Skiffington,2005)。 启导意味着“那些年长的、智慧的启导者将他们的才智传递给被启导者,与此同时,启导者也还担负着被启导者赞助人的角色”(Rogers,2004),后者可以直接追溯到“启导”的词源本意。对于学术性的启导来说,启导师的作用更为重大,“被启导者整个人都交给了他”(Cranwell-ward,2004)。 启导是一项战略的、有机的、全面的过程。 “启导者着重于讲述自己的个人经历。 贯穿以经历,任何领导者都能担负起启导者的角色,为他人提供建议,助他人成长。”(Rosinski, 2003)。 1990年代的一位著名作家就说过,“知识与经验使得名人们更为耀眼”(Clutterbuck,1991)。 作为一名启导者,他应当是“聪慧的专业人士”(Caruso,1992), 是被启导者“职业上的朋友”(Rolfe-Flett, 1996)。


关于启导的一些新近观点

随着新千年的到来,启导和培训被赋予了更多商业价值。 我们注意到,启导师的角色现在已经发展为“一个经验丰富的目的明确的回音板,他拥有权力,能够影响事件”(Conway,1995),学习型组织内到处有他的身影。 “帮助和支持人们管理他们自己的学习,使他们能够最大化潜力,发展技术,提高表现,最终成为自己想做的人。”(Parsloe,1999)。 新千年见证了这样一个转变,作为一名启导师,他的角色将更全面、更包容、更丰满。(Connor,2000) 启导师就是“提供指导支持促进以及帮助”的人(亨利管理学院,2000)。 最近,基于“反思学习”(Reflective Learning),启导这一角色更被扩大染上了“全局性的”、“教牧的”色彩(Cranwell,2004)。


启导的企业定义

有趣的是,在每一个执行启导项目计划的企业里,不约而同地出现了为企业内部受众重新定义启导的现象。 这也就导致了各个企业对启导的理解不尽相同。

  • 对于avaya公司来说,“启导这个术语指的就是帮助、建议和指导雇员适应复杂的商业环境”。
  • EDS公司则认为,“启导是一个双方学习的伙伴关系,在启导过程当中,员工通过培训、角色建模、咨询、知识分享、情感支持等手段,互相帮助,实现个人与职业发展。”
  • Abbey公司内部,“启导则不仅仅是一个流程、或一项活动,更是人与人之间的一种关系,一种专业人士帮助组织内的尚未达到专业程度的人士提高发展的关系。”
  • Bennetts公司所下的定义则是,“启导者是与一名学习者建立一对一发展关系的人,学习者跟随启导者实现个人成长” (Cranwell-ward,2004)。

关于Coaching[教练]是否是启导从属概念问题的争论,似乎能够给我们一些启示:随着启导关系的发展,其角色地位亦有可能发生变化,如 教练、促进者、回音板、诤友、网络、榜样,等等(Connor,2000)。 所有这些角色都给人以一种印象:启导者处在领袖位置上,后面跟着从属者,受其领导,与其并肩作战。 一些非学术专家认为,启导作为一种训练模式,如果用作职业头衔的话,似乎就有些过于正式了,从职业来看,也许还是训练/教练更为合适(Hudson,1999)。
 

启导的起源 历史启导的起源 历史

启导者(Mentor),这一概念有文字可考的历史可以追溯到公元前875年Homer的《奥德赛》(Odyssey),书中讲到,奥德修斯王在特洛伊战争期间,让一位启导者帮助他看护他的小王子忒勒马科斯。 “战争与智慧”女神雅典娜非常喜欢这个孩子,她曾经说过,她会永远庇佑忒勒马科斯, 于是她就一次次地装扮成启导者的形象,给以奥德修斯和忒勒马科斯指导与力量。


研究发现,“Mentor”(启导)这个单词确实起源于希腊语: 其前半部分“men”表示会思考的人;后半部分“tor”是阳性后缀(Klein,1967)。 尽管忒勒马科斯的启导是来自女子,但造词学不免要受到世界受男性主导这一时代特征影响,在那样的历史时期,权力是按层级来支配的,而非智力,所以“Mentor”的阳性后缀也没有什么可奇怪的。 不管怎样,启导者作为“可信的指导”这一含义一直延用至今。


现代历史上,启导的首次使用可以追溯到1699年。当时,有一位法国作家Francois Fenelon,撰写了一本《Telemaque历险记》(Les Adventures de Telemaque)的书。 不仅书中的主人公Telemaque是一位启导者,而且整个故事都是对《奥德赛》的模仿。 在英语中,启导者这个词似乎直到1750年才出现。牛津英语辞典是如此纪录的:Mentor一词最先出现于1750年Chestere的《三月八日,给儿子的信》。 这个时间线会让人误以为启导在消失后又重新出现。不管称呼如何变化,事实却是启导的历史一直贯穿于整个欧洲历史中,不曾中断过。 例如,《De Corpore》编辑Saint Bede所记载的僧侣启导, 至今仍盛行于修道院内。 根据现存的1511年的史料记载,宗教改革领袖路德就曾与他的启导者ohann von Staupitz坐在一起探讨过许多问题。 工业革命时期,“从学徒到工匠”是一种非常流行的现象。 1640年,当时的学徒身份有一种契约的成分,类似于所有权关系, 一个学徒往往要为东主服务12年之久,或者年满21岁为止。


这种对学徒服务时间的强调,与今天主要是对学徒能力的考量,形成了鲜明的对比。 “由于缺少现实证据,学者们很少考虑英国的学徒制度”(Thomas,1929)。 尽管父传子的模式被认为过时落后,但师傅带徒弟的启导模式长期以来却是一种很正式的训练方法。更为有趣的是,徒弟还往往会被视为师傅的附属财产。 事实上这是一种不平等的启导关系,随着时代发展,这种“资助式”启导逐渐受到“发展式”启导的挑战。 Levinson发表于1978年的作品《人生的季节》(The Season's of a man’s life)为1990年代围绕启导展开的大讨论扮演了一种催化的角色。 他在书中写道,“为了从‘年轻成人期’过渡到‘权威成熟期’,启导者是必须的”。 Levinson的发展理论横跨从幼年期到老年期的各个发展阶段。 在过去的几十年里,我们已经能够很清楚地看到启导和训练的效用,但是关于启导的书面理论还显得非常有限(Wynch,1986),而且我们还能听到不少关于启导模式缺少经验活动、需要注重实效的批评和警告(Little,1990)。 就此而言,不管对启导定义的研究如何深入,对于回应这些批评效用甚微,所以,也就很难提高启导模型潜在用户的使用信心。
 

启导的运用。 应用

  • 发展式启导。
  • 资助式启导。
  • 临床式启导。
  • 生活启导。
  • 同行启导。

启导步骤。 流程

一个典型的启导流程一般包括以下步骤:

  1. 发展步骤确认。
  2. 学习步骤确认,自我管理促进。
  3. 学习步骤支持。
  4. 评估支持。

启导的优势。 优点

  • 有助于受启导者的长期发展。
  • 充分发挥个人的/企业的作用与贡献。
  • 有助于吸引和留住人才,投入回报高。

启导的局限。 缺点

  • 受启导者在被高度控制或监控的情况下,会变得高度机械化,并容易犯错误,且容易失去了个人的内在价值。
  • 如果允许启导者自主挑选被启导对象的话,他往往会挑选那些看得上眼的启导对象。
  • 你敢告诉你的上司他/她是个恶心的启导者吗?

启导的假设。 条件

  • 启导是个非常复杂的竞技场,但是它所承载的信息却浮于表面,易于接触。
  • 启导是一个过程而不是一个模型, 但启导活动的展开确有模式可循。
  • 启导是一项复杂的活动,对于个人或企业来说,既有巨利可图,也有可能造成毁灭。 当启导被运用于商业环境的时候,一定要求助于专业启导人士。

参考书: David Clutterbuck - Everyone needs a mentor -


启导论坛
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Mentoring 高级帐户
 

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比较: Coaching[教练]  |  Facilitation Styles[引导类型]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work[关系工作的四个类型]  |  马斯洛(Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]  |  ERG Theory[ERG理论]  |  Spiral Dynamics[螺旋动力学]  |  Changing Organizational Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Whole Brain Model[全脑模型]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Johari Window[乔哈里资讯窗]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]


返回到分类主页: 变革与组织  |  沟通与技能  |  人力资源管理  |  领导力


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版权所有 2016 12manage经理人进阶捷径。V14.1 - 最后更新:5-12-2016。各管理方法名称(tm)为其原创者所拥有。