Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论] (McGregor)
Theory Z[Z理论] (Ouchi)

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强硬管理,还是柔性管理? Douglas McGregor的X理论、Y理论解析。 (‘60)。 William Ouchi的Z理论解析。 (‘81)

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  1. 摘要
  2. 论坛
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什么是X理论和Y理论? 释义

美国社会心理学家、麻省理工学院的Douglas McGregor教授在他的《企业的人性层面》(The Human Side of Enterprise,1960)一书中,提出了脍炙人口的X理论和Y理论模型。通过观察管理者处理员工关系的方式,McGregor发现,管理者关于人性的观点是建立在一些假设基础之上的,而管理者又根据这些假设来塑造他们自己对下属的行为方式,于是就提出了两种关于人性的基本假设。
 

 

X理论

Y理论

假设

员工天生不喜欢工作,只要可能,他们就会逃避工作。 员工视工作如休息、娱乐一般自然。 员工投入在工作中的体力和精力与他们花在私人生活中的一样多。
  由于员工不喜欢工作,因此必须采取强制措施或惩罚办法,迫使他们努力工作,完成任务目标。 如果员工对某些工作作出承诺,他们会进行自我指导和自我控制,以完成组织任务。 控制和惩罚并非让员工工作的唯一手段。
  一般员工希望被指挥。 工作满意度是激励员工与确保员工忠诚的关键。
  员工只要有可能就会逃避责任。 员工愿意乐于承担责任。 在适当条件下,大多数员工不仅能够承担责任,而且会主动寻求承担责任。
  一般员工简简单单,安于现状。 员工富有想象力和创造力,不断寻求改变。 他们的灵活性有助于解决工作中出现的问题。

应用

车间工厂、大量生产; 生产工人。 专业服务、知识劳动者; 管理人员、专业人员。

有助于

大规模高效运营。 专业化管理、复杂性问题的参与和解决。

管理方式

独裁式、强硬管理。 参与式、柔性管理。

McGregor教授个人倾向于Y理论,并认为Y理论是一种较好的管理模式,但是,他同时指出,Y理论很难用于大规模生产经营活动。


Z理论 - Ouchi

1980年, 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的William Ouchi教授结合美国和日本的管理实践,在McGregorX理论-Y理论的基础上,提出了Z理论,它具有以下一些特征: 终身雇佣 - 集体决策 - 个人责任 - 较少的评估和提升 - 明确的、规范化的考察与暗示的、非正式控制相结合 - 适度的专业化职业发展轨迹 - 对员工包括其家庭在内的全面关怀。Ouchi认为,生产力建立于组织成员互信的基础上,而非资金或技术,这种互信代表着一种组织文化。这种互信的组织文化将渗透组织的每一个层级,它不仅可以调高组织的生产力,更能够满足员工的自尊。


X理论-Y理论-Z理论论坛
  Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian political examples....
     
 
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To what extent are they applicable to management, administration and employee empowerment in such bureaucracies?...
     
 
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive many organizations have to change management styles so they can effectively deliver to the consumer.
A key part of managing f...
     
 
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to analyze and provide a rationale for why there is conflict in organisations and to oversimplify the problems, not as a basis for p...
     
 
  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchical role, as part of a process to create value despite changing conditions according to Cashman (1998) and Scharmer (2007).
<...
     
 
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view that all the theories are interchangeable....
     
 
  It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovered that security of tenure topped the list of what motivated workers.
Another interesting part of Theory Z is concer...
     
 
  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should always:
- Maintain a professional dress code
- Speak with a bold sound of self realization, and
- Feel a high mo...
     
 
  Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and clearly define the scope of work with accountability and responsibility. It is amazing to see the innovations and fun at work. Th...
     
 
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of a business, when management realises its strong hands (competent employees), the value of utilizing/ retaini...
     
 
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised industries. But as we all know human ingenuity is always there.
Theory X (autocratic style) still continues practically behind the...
     
 
  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also.
One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The value of the individual, job requirement, and the culture of the orgigin influence the behavior of the employee....
     
 
  Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action and behavior. Greatly influenced by organisational repositioning response to the ever changing pestle factors and likewise the worke...
     
 
  Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of management, but the situation and environment which necessitate the leadership style....
     
 
  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances. Thus in our social intercourse and discourses we shall always fall into either of these 3 theories. It is therefore prude...
     
 
  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach and tends to todays professional requirements....
     
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance can not match the effort, need and organizational goals....
     
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today?...
     
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these exercises, definitely the model of the theories will collapse....
     
 
  The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can empower X he will turn into Y and the opposite will work too....
     
 

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最佳实践 - X理论-Y理论-Z理论 高级帐户

Expert Tips (ENG) - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z 高级帐户
 

Self-fulfilling Prophesies

An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-fulfilling prophesies - that is...
Usage (application)Further information
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency:
1. L - LISTENING: Actively listening to others will help ...
Usage (application)Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application)Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Theory X problem

McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as levers of motivation. However in mo...
Usage (application)Leadership
 
 

相关资料 - X理论-Y理论-Z理论 高级帐户
 

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