Theorie X Theorie Y (McGregor)
Theorie Z (Ouchi)

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Hard of Zacht Management? Verklaring van Theorie X Theorie Y van McGregor. ('60). Verklaring van Theorie Z door William Ouchi. ('81)

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Wat is Theorie X en Y? Beschrijving

Douglas McGregor, een Amerikaanse sociale psycholoog, stelde zijn beroemde modellen van Theorie X en Theorie Y voor in zijn boek „The Human Side Of Enterprise“ (1960).
 

 

Theorie X

Theorie Y

Veronderstellingen

Mensen houden inherent niet van werken en zullen proberen om het te vermijden als zij dat kunnen. Mensen zien werk als net zo natuurlijk als spel en rust. Mensen besteden de zelfde hoeveelheid fysieke en geestelijke inspanning in hun werk als in hun privé leven.
  Omdat mensen niet van werken houden moeten zij door het management worden gedwongen of worden gecontroleerd en zo bedreigd worden dat zij hard genoeg werken. Op voorwaarde dat mensen gemotiveerd zijn, zullen zij zichzelf leiden naar de doelstellingen van de organisatie. Controle en straf zijn niet de enige mechanismen om mensen te laten presteren.
  Gemiddelde werknemers willen worden geleid. Werktevredenheid is zeer belangrijk om werknemers erbij te betrekken en hun commitment te waarborgen.
  Mensen houden niet van verantwoordelijkheid. Mensen leren om verantwoordelijkheid te nemen en naar verantwoordelijkheid te streven. Gemiddelde mensen, in de juiste omstandigheden, zullen verantwoordelijkheid niet alleen accepteren, maar er zelfs natuurlijk naar zoeken.
  Gemiddelde mensen zijn duidelijk en ondubbelzinnig en willen zich veilig op het werk voelen. Mensen zijn fantasierijk en creatief. Hun vindingrijkheid zou moeten worden gebruikt om problemen op het werk op te lossen.

Toepassing

Op de werkvloer, Massaproductie. Productiearbeiders. Professionele Dienstverlening, Kenniswerkers. Managers en Stafmedewerkers.

Bevorderlijk voor

Efficiënte operaties op grote schaal. Management van Stafmedewerkers, participatief complexe problemen oplossen.

Managementstijl

Autoritair, Hard Management. Participatief, Zacht Management.

McGregor ziet Theorie Y als het prefereerbare model en managementmethode, maar hij meende dat Theorie Y moeilijk was te gebruiken voor operaties op grote schaal.


Theorie Z - Ouchi

In 1981, kwam William Ouchi met een variant op de proppen die het Amerikaanse en Japanse organisatie en management combineerde tot Theory Z (Theorie Z), welke de volgende kenmerken heeft: lange termijn aanstelling in het werk - collectieve besluitvorming - individuele verantwoordelijkheid - langzame evaluatie & promotie - impliciete, informele controle met expliciete, geformaliseerde metingen - matig gespecialiseerde carrièrepaden - en een holistische zorg voor de werknemer, met inbegrip van zijn familie.


Theorie X Theorie Y Theorie Z Forum
  Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian political examples....
     
 
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To what extent are they applicable to management, administration and employee empowerment in such bureaucracies?...
     
 
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive many organizations have to change management styles so they can effectively deliver to the consumer.
A key part of managing f...
     
 
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to analyze and provide a rationale for why there is conflict in organisations and to oversimplify the problems, not as a basis for p...
     
 
  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchical role, as part of a process to create value despite changing conditions according to Cashman (1998) and Scharmer (2007).
<...
     
 
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view that all the theories are interchangeable....
     
 
  It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovered that security of tenure topped the list of what motivated workers.
Another interesting part of Theory Z is concer...
     
 
  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should always:
- Maintain a professional dress code
- Speak with a bold sound of self realization, and
- Feel a high mo...
     
 
  Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and clearly define the scope of work with accountability and responsibility. It is amazing to see the innovations and fun at work. Th...
     
 
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of a business, when management realises its strong hands (competent employees), the value of utilizing/ retaini...
     
 
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised industries. But as we all know human ingenuity is always there.
Theory X (autocratic style) still continues practically behind the...
     
 
  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also.
One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The value of the individual, job requirement, and the culture of the orgigin influence the behavior of the employee....
     
 
  Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action and behavior. Greatly influenced by organisational repositioning response to the ever changing pestle factors and likewise the worke...
     
 
  Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of management, but the situation and environment which necessitate the leadership style....
     
 
  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances. Thus in our social intercourse and discourses we shall always fall into either of these 3 theories. It is therefore prude...
     
 
  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach and tends to todays professional requirements....
     
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance can not match the effort, need and organizational goals....
     
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today?...
     
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these exercises, definitely the model of the theories will collapse....
     
 
  The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can empower X he will turn into Y and the opposite will work too....
     
 

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Self-fulfilling Prophesies

An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-fulfilling prophesies - that is...
Usage (application): Further information
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency:
1. L - LISTENING: Actively listening to others will help ...
Usage (application): Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Theory X problem

McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as levers of motivation. However in mo...
Usage (application): Leadership
 
 

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Vergelijk met Theorie X en Theorie Y:   Leiderschapsstijlen  |  Managementraster  |  Leiderschapcontinuum  |  Situationeel Leiderschap  |  Bases van Sociale Macht  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Pyramide van Maslow  |  Verwachtingstheorie  |  Path-Goal Theorie  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theorie  |  Motivatie-Hygiëne Theorie  |  VeranderingsfasenZeven Verrassingen voor CEOs  |  Zeven Eigenschappen  |  Attributen van Excellente Managers  |  Vijf Disciplines  |  Tien Principes van Opnieuw Uitvinden  |  Veertien Punten van Management  |  Charismatisch Leiderschap  |  Behoeftentheorie (Theory of Needs)


Keer terug naar Management Discipline: Verandering & Organisatie  |  Communicatie & Vaardigheden  |  Human Resources  |   Leiderschap  |  Supply Chain & Kwaliteit


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Auteursrecht 2016 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Laatst bijgewerkt op: 25-9-2016. Alle namen zijn tm van hun eigenaren.