X이론 Y이론 (McGregor)
Theory Z [Z이론] (Ouchi)

지식 센터

   

하드한 관리와 소프트한 관리. McGregor의 X이론 Y이론의 설명. ('60). William Ouchi의 Z이론의 설명. ('81)

목차

  1. 요약
  2. 포럼
  3. 모범 사례
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 자료
  6. 인쇄

X이론과 Y이론이란 무엇인가. 기술

미국의 사회심리학자 Douglas McGregor 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' 란 책에서 그의 유명한 X이론과 Y이론을 제안하였다(1960년).
 

 

X이론

Y이론

가정

인간은 원래 일하는 것을 싫어하고 할 수 있음에도 피하려고 한다. 사람들은 일하는 것을 노는 것이나 쉬는 것처럼 자연스러운 것으로 본다. 인간의 각자의 개인적인 삶에서처럼 작업에서도 똑같은 양의 육체적이고 정신적인 노력을 소비한다.
  사람들이 일하는 것을 싫어하기 때문에 경영진에 의해 강요받고 통제되어야 하며 열심히 일하도록 위협이 주어져야 한다. 만일 사람들이 동기부여되면 조직의 목표에 대해 자기 지시적인 사람이 될 것이다. 통제와 벌칙은 사람들이 작업을 수행하게 하는 유일한 메커니즘이 아니다.
  일반적으로 직원들은 지시를 받고자 한다. 직업 만족도는 직원과의 관계와 성실성을 이끌어내는데 핵심이 된다.
  사람들은 책임이란 것을 좋아하지 않는다. 사람들은 책임을 수용하고 책임을 찾는 것을 배운다. 보통의 인가은 적절한 조건하에서 책임을 수용할 뿐만 아니라 자연스럽게 탐색도 한다.
  보통의 인간은 분명하고 모호하지 않으며 직업에 있어 안전감을 얻고자 한다. 사람들은 상상력이 풍부하고 창조적이다. 그들의 재능은 일을 통해 문제해결에 사용되어야 한다.

응용

매장, 대량 생산. 생산 노동자. 전문적인 서비스, 지식 노동자. 매니저와 전문가.

에 공헌하는

대규모 효률적인 운영에 기여. 전문가의 관리, 참여적인 복잡한 문제 해결.

관리 방식

권위주의적, 하드한 관리. 참여적, 소프트한 관리.

McGregor Y이론을 선호되는 모델, 경영방법이라고 본다. 그러나 Y이론을 대규모로 운영하여 사용하는데는 어려움이 있다고 보았다.


Ouchi의 Z이론

1981년에 William Ouchi는 미국과 일본의 경영사례를 결합하여 Z이론을 선보였다. Z이론은 다음과 같은 특징이 있다 : 장기 고용 - 집단의사결정 - 개인적인 책임 - 느린 평가와 승진 - 분명하고 공식적인 측정을 하는 불분명하고 비공식적인 통제 - 적당하게 전문화된 커리어 경로 - 가족을 포함한 직원에 대한 전체적인 관심.


X이론 Y이론 Z이론 포럼
  Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian political examples....
     
 
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To what extent are they applicable to management, administration and employee empowerment in such bureaucracies?...
     
 
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive many organizations have to change management styles so they can effectively deliver to the consumer.
A key part of managing f...
     
 
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to analyze and provide a rationale for why there is conflict in organisations and to oversimplify the problems, not as a basis for p...
     
 
  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchical role, as part of a process to create value despite changing conditions according to Cashman (1998) and Scharmer (2007).
<...
     
 
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view that all the theories are interchangeable....
     
 
  It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovered that security of tenure topped the list of what motivated workers.
Another interesting part of Theory Z is concer...
     
 
  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should always:
- Maintain a professional dress code
- Speak with a bold sound of self realization, and
- Feel a high mo...
     
 
  Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and clearly define the scope of work with accountability and responsibility. It is amazing to see the innovations and fun at work. Th...
     
 
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of a business, when management realises its strong hands (competent employees), the value of utilizing/ retaini...
     
 
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised industries. But as we all know human ingenuity is always there.
Theory X (autocratic style) still continues practically behind the...
     
 
  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also.
One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The value of the individual, job requirement, and the culture of the orgigin influence the behavior of the employee....
     
 
  Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action and behavior. Greatly influenced by organisational repositioning response to the ever changing pestle factors and likewise the worke...
     
 
  Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of management, but the situation and environment which necessitate the leadership style....
     
 
  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances. Thus in our social intercourse and discourses we shall always fall into either of these 3 theories. It is therefore prude...
     
 
  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach and tends to todays professional requirements....
     
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance can not match the effort, need and organizational goals....
     
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today?...
     
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these exercises, definitely the model of the theories will collapse....
     
 
  The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can empower X he will turn into Y and the opposite will work too....
     
 

X이론 Y이론 Z이론 시그(SIG)


시그(SIG)

X이론 Y이론 Z이론 교육 및 이벤트


교육, 세미나 및 이벤트 찾기


모범 사례 - X이론 Y이론 Z이론 프리미엄

Expert Tips (ENG) - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z 프리미엄
 

Self-fulfilling Prophesies

An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-fulfilling prophesies - that is...
Usage (application) : Further information
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency:
1. L - LISTENING: Actively listening to others will help ...
Usage (application) : Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application) : Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Theory X problem

McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as levers of motivation. However in mo...
Usage (application) : Leadership
 
 

자료 - X이론 Y이론 Z이론 프리미엄
 

뉴스

X이론 Y이론 Z이론
     
 

뉴스

theory Ouchi
     
 

영화

X이론 Y이론 Z이론
     
 

영화

theory Ouchi
     
 

프리젠 테이션

X이론 Y이론 Z이론
     
 

프리젠 테이션

theory Ouchi
     
 

X이론 Y이론 Z이론
     
 

theory Ouchi
     

X이론 Y이론 관련개념 :   리더십 형태  |  Managerial Grid [관리망]  |  Leadership Continuum [리더십 차원]  |  Situational Leadership [상황대응 리더십]  |  Bases of Social Power [사회적 권력의 기초]  |  EPIC ADVISERS 리더십모델  |  Hierarchy of Needs [욕구계층이론]  |  Expectancy Theory [기대 이론]  |  Path-Goal Theory [경로-목표 이론]  |  Hawthoren Effect [호손 효과]  |  ERG 이론   |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory [2 요인 이론]  |  Change Management [변화 관리]  |  Seven Surprises [새로운 CEO의 7가지 놀라움]  |  Seven Habits [성공하는 사람들의 7가지 습관]  |  8 Attributes of Management Excellence [경영 우수성의 속성]  |  Five Disciplines [제5경영]  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention [재창조를 위한 10가지 원칙]  |  Fourteen Points of Management [품질경영을 위한 14가지 지침]  |  Charismatic Leadership [카리스마 리더십]  |  필요의 이론


다른 페이지로 이동: Change & Organization [변화와 조직]  |  의사소통과 기법들  |  인적 자원  |   리더십  |  공급망관리와 품질


관리 방법, 모형 및 이론

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