Teoria X Teoria Y (McGregor)
Teoria Z (Ouchi)

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Gestione Hard o Soft? Spiegazione del Teoria X Teoria Y di McGregor. ('60). Spiegazione di Teoria Z di William Ouchi. ('81)

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  1. Riassunto
  2. Forum
  3. Migliori Pratiche
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Risorse
  6. Stampa

Che cosa sono le teorie X e Y? Descrizione

Douglas McGregor, uno psicologo sociale americano, ha proposto i suoi famosi modelli della Teoria X e della Teoria Y nel suo libro “The Human Side Of Enterprise„ (1960).
 

 

Teoria X

Teoria Y

Presupposti

Gli esseri umani insitamente odiano il lavoro e proveranno ad evitarlo se possono. La gente vede il lavoro come una cosa naturale quanto il gioco ed il riposo. Gli esseri umani spendono la stessa quantità di sforzo fisico e mentale nel loro lavoro di quanto ne spendono nella loro vita privata.
  Poiché le persone odiano il lavoro devono essere costrette o controllate dalla gestione e minacciate per lavorare abbastanza sodo. Se la gente è motivata, si potrà autogestire per raggiungere gli obiettivi dell'organizzazione. Il controllo e la punizione non sono gli unici meccanismi che fanno performare le persone.
  Gli impiegati medi desiderano essere diretti. La soddisfazione professionale è la chiave per fare impegnare gli impiegati ed assicurarsi il loro impegno.
  La gente non gradisce la responsabilità. La gente impara ad accettare la responsabilità e cercare la responsabilità. Gli esseri umani medi, nelle giuste circostanze, non solo accetteranno, ma cercheranno la responsabilità in maniera naturale.
  Gli esseri umani medi sono chiari ed inequivocabili e desiderano essere sicuri al lavoro. La gente è immaginativa e creativa. La loro inventiva dovrebbe essere usata per risolvere i problemi di lavoro.

Applicazione

Negozi, Produzione di Massa. Lavoratori nel reparto produzione. Servizi Professionali, lavoratori che svolgono attività intellettuali. Manager e Professionisti.

Tendente a

Operazioni efficienti in grande scala. Gestione dei Professionisti, Risoluzione di Problemi Complessa Partecipativa.

Stile di gestione

Gestione autoritaria e Management Hard. Gestione Partecipativa o Soft.

McGregor vede la teoria Y come il modello ed il metodo della gestione da preferire, comunque ha pensato che la teoria Y è difficile da usare nelle operazioni su grande scala.


Teoria Z - Ouchi

Nel 1981, William Ouchi ha fornito una variante che ha abbinato le pratiche di gestione americane e giapponesi per formare la Teoria Z, che ha le seguenti caratteristiche: occupazione di lungo termine -processo decisionale collettivo - responsabilità individuale - valutazione & promozione lente - controllo informale ed implicito, con misure formalizzate ed esplicite - percorsi di carriera moderatamente specializzati - e una preoccupazione olistica per l'impiegato, compresa la sua famiglia.


Teoria X Teoria Y Teoria Z Forum
  Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian political examples....
     
 
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To what extent are they applicable to management, administration and employee empowerment in such bureaucracies?...
     
 
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive many organizations have to change management styles so they can effectively deliver to the consumer.
A key part of managing f...
     
 
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to analyze and provide a rationale for why there is conflict in organisations and to oversimplify the problems, not as a basis for p...
     
 
  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchical role, as part of a process to create value despite changing conditions according to Cashman (1998) and Scharmer (2007).
<...
     
 
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view that all the theories are interchangeable....
     
 
  It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovered that security of tenure topped the list of what motivated workers.
Another interesting part of Theory Z is concer...
     
 
  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should always:
- Maintain a professional dress code
- Speak with a bold sound of self realization, and
- Feel a high mo...
     
 
  Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and clearly define the scope of work with accountability and responsibility. It is amazing to see the innovations and fun at work. Th...
     
 
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of a business, when management realises its strong hands (competent employees), the value of utilizing/ retaini...
     
 
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised industries. But as we all know human ingenuity is always there.
Theory X (autocratic style) still continues practically behind the...
     
 
  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also.
One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The value of the individual, job requirement, and the culture of the orgigin influence the behavior of the employee....
     
 
  Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action and behavior. Greatly influenced by organisational repositioning response to the ever changing pestle factors and likewise the worke...
     
 
  Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of management, but the situation and environment which necessitate the leadership style....
     
 
  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances. Thus in our social intercourse and discourses we shall always fall into either of these 3 theories. It is therefore prude...
     
 
  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach and tends to todays professional requirements....
     
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance can not match the effort, need and organizational goals....
     
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today?...
     
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these exercises, definitely the model of the theories will collapse....
     
 
  The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can empower X he will turn into Y and the opposite will work too....
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Premium
 

Self-fulfilling Prophesies

An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-fulfilling prophesies - that is...
Usage (application): Further information
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency:
1. L - LISTENING: Actively listening to others will help ...
Usage (application): Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Theory X problem

McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as levers of motivation. However in mo...
Usage (application): Leadership
 
 

Risorse - Teoria X Teoria Y Teoria Z Premium
 

Notizie

Teoria Mcgregor
     
 

Notizie

Teoria Ouchi
     
 

Video

Teoria Mcgregor
     
 

Video

Teoria Ouchi
     
 

Presentazioni

Teoria Mcgregor
     
 

Presentazioni

Teoria Ouchi
     
 

Di più

Teoria Mcgregor
     
 

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Teoria Ouchi
     

Paragonare alla Teoria X Teoria Y:   Stili di Leadership  |  Griglia Manageriale  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Leadership Situazionale  |  Basi del Potere Sociale  |  CONSIGLIERI EPICI  |  Gerarchia dei Bisogni  |  Teoria della Aspettativa  |  Teoria Percorso-Obiettivo  |  Effetto Hawthorne  |  ERG Theory  |  Teoria dei Due Fattori di Herzberg  |  Change Management  |  Sette Sorprese  |  I Sette Pilastri del Successo  |  Otto Attributi di Eccellenza Gestionale  |  Cinque Discipline  |  Dieci Principii di Reinvenzione  |  I Quattordici Punti del Management  |  Leadership Carismatica  |  Teoria dei Bisogni


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